My Symbolic interaction, structural/functional analysis, and conflict theory are arguably the
most important and influential approaches in sociology. This task will train you in applying them
in your analysis of practical issues. Your submission will consist of two paragraphs. The
sociological problem is poverty.
· A hypothesis is simply a statement, an assumption, or some testable belief or opinion.
· Hypothesis testing is the process by which the belief is tested by statistical means.
· The essence of testing statistical hypothesis is t o decide whether the claim ( research
hypothesis) is supported by empirical evidence obtained through a random sample.
· A hypothesis is denoted by H.
· Ho=Null H ypothesis (a hypothesis of “no difference ” or “no relationship ”)
· H1 or H a = A lternative Hypothesis ( Research H ypothesis)
· Formulate the null and alternative hypotheses
· Establish the significance level and identify the acceptance and rejection
· Select the test statistic and procedure
· Collect the sample and compute the value of the test statistic
· Make the decision (accept or reject the null hypothesis).
Parametric & Non Parametric Tests
Parametric tests :
To use parametric tests, the following assumptions should hold:
· The observations must be independent i.e. the selection of any one cas e should not affect the
chances for any other case to be included in the sample
· Its observations should be drawn from normally distributed populations
· These populations should have equal variances
· The measurement scales should be at least interval so that arithmetic operations can be used
· Parametric tests are more powerful than non -parametric tests because their data are derived from
interval and ratio measurement.
· They are more useful the more you know about your subject matter, since know ledge about
subject matter can be built into parametric models.
Non - parametric tests :
· Also known as distribution free tests or flexible functional forms
· One must use statistical technique called non -parametric if it satisfies at least one of the
followin g five types of criteria.
v The data entering the analysis are enumerative (i.e. count data representing the number of
observations in each category or cross -category)
v The data are measured and/or analyzed using a nominal scale of measurement
v The data are me asured and/or analyzed using an ordinal scale of measurement
v The inference does not concern a parameter in the population distribution
v The probability distribution of the statistic upon which the analysis is based is not dependent
upon specific information or assumption about the population(s) which the sample(s) are
drawn but only general assumptions, such as a continuous and/or symmetric population
One and two sided tests
· One - sided (tailed) test
This is a statistical test in which the al ternative hypothesis specifies that the population parameter
lies entirely above, or entirely below, the value specified in the null hypothesis.
e.g. Ho: m = 50,000
Ha: m > 50,000 is a one -sided test since Ha specifies that m lies on one particular side o f
· Two - sided (tailed) test
An alternative hypothesis that specifies that the parameter can lie on either side of the value
indicated by H o is called a two -sided or two -tailed test.
e.g. Ho: m = 50,000
Ha: m 50,000 is a two -sided test
Type I & Type II Errors
· Type I error
Committed by rejecting a true null hypothesis (