23 pages/≈6325 words
American Revolutionary War and the Reason for Protest (Essay Sample)
The task is about the American revolution and the reason for the protest. The paper pointed out the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, the Tea Acts, and the Coercive Acts as reasons for the protest. While these acts were insufficient to cause a revolution, they all created a firestorm of resentment towards Great Britain. source..
AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR AND ITS REASONS FOR PROTESTS Student’s Name Class Information Date The American Revolutionary War also known as the American War of Independence was fought in order to fight against British Control in America. The war started on April 19, 1775, in Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts, and continued until September 3, 1783. We disembarked in Boston and tented with a Rebel company of approximately 500 on 8 July, Brown's House was attacked and burned by the Subalterns Piquet (Kellogg, 1920, pp., 53). The war mainly happened in New England, the Middle Atlantic States (New York), the Southern colonies (South Carolina), and the Mid-Atlantic states (Pennsylvania). Though many battles were fought all over America, some major battles that took place in New York City, New Jersey, and Saratoga were important in winning the war. However, before the war, there were a series of protests. One of the main causes of these protests was that they imposed taxes to raise revenue.[Kellogg, Louise Phelps Journal of a British Officer During the American Revolution 7, no. 1 (June 1920): 51-58.] The British felt it was only right that every person living in America should pay a share of their income to help them sustain what was going on in America (Detsi-Diamanti, 2014, np). They felt that if you were living in their land then you should be part of paying for it, even though most colonists did not agree with this statement and did not want to pay these taxes. The amount taxed would increase over time, which is how we got our nickname taxation without representation, which showed how upset people were becoming about all these new taxes being forced on them with no say as to where their money went or even if they wanted it used at all by Britain. This caused many protests throughout different colonies but mainly focused on Boston and New York. This protest led to an event called Boston Massacre which caused more tension between Britain and America. It also created some other problems such as the Tea Act and Stamp Act. All of these acts eventually led up to war breaking out between Britain and America. In 1765, Parliament passed The Stamp Act requiring Americans to purchase stamps for newspapers, legal documents, playing cards, dice cups, and other items made from materials produced outside of North America (such as glass). Colonists protested vehemently against taxation without representation, leading to attacks on customs officials who tried to enforce the law. In response, Parliament repealed all duties except those on tea imported into England (which was retained in order to maintain a monopoly) until when it repealed those too after receiving word that Massachusetts had ratified its own constitution establishing independence from Great Britain.[Detsi-Diamanti, Zoe. “Robert S. Allison, The American Revolution: A Concise History.” European Journal of American Studies (June 2014): 106-106.] The Stamp Act was a piece of legislation passed by Britain in 1765, which required all British colonists in America to purchase a stamp tax stamp on certain types of paper goods like legal documents, newspapers, playing cards, and dice. While it may seem minuscule today, for most colonists at that time, purchasing goods like newspapers and dice came at an extra cost and meant less spending money on other goods (Nesnay, 2014, np). A majority of Americans felt that they should not be taxed without their consent (as per their rights as Englishmen), and soon riots broke out across several colonies. After only one year, parliament repealed the Stamp Act due to its unpopularity. However, many people remained angry about what had happened, and continued to protest over further attempts by Parliament to raise revenue from them.[Nesnay, Mary. “THE STAMP ACT – A BRIEF HISTORY.” Journal of the American Revolution 2014.] The Townshend Acts were a series of laws passed by Parliament in 1767 and 1768 that placed new taxes on nearly every manufactured item coming into Massachusetts. They also created new customs duties on many imported items, including tea. It was one of these Townshend Acts that incited British troops to board a ship in Boston Harbor and dump over 400 crates of tea overboard an event known as the Boston Tea Party that sparked even more acts against the rebellious colonies especially in Boston (America in Class). In fact, it was not until after several colonists had been arrested for violating Parliamentary laws (and after soldiers opened fire on a crowd of protestors in what is now known as the Boston Massacre) that King George III sent an army across the Atlantic to enforce his rule.[America In Class. COLONISTS RESPOND TO THE TOWNSHEND ACTS 1767-1770. National Humanities Center, 2010.] The Tea Act of 1773 was a law passed by Parliament that allowed British tea merchants to undercut their rivals and sell smuggled tea directly in America, where it then went on sale for less than half its landed cost. As such, colonists were enraged at what they saw as another form of taxation without representation (America in Class). This led directly to the Boston Tea Party and eventually, full-blown rebellion. In response to colonial resistance, Britain tried again with a more lenient plan: no tax on tea; instead, ships would be charged an excise (an indirect tax) upon landing in colonial ports. Many colonists still boycotted these ships out of principle; others could not afford to do so and became dependent upon British imports.[America in Class. “THAT Worst of Plagues, the Detested T E A” COLONISTS RESPOND TO THE TEA ACT & THE “BOSTON TEA PARTY,” 1773-74 . America in Class, 2013. ] The Coercive Acts were a series of laws passed by Parliament in 1774, aimed at punishing Massachusetts for harboring radical organizations like Sons of Liberty and fomenting an armed uprising. The British government believed these acts would strip Massachusetts of self-government, but they only increased outrage in New England. The First Continental Congress gathered in Philadelphia and considered boycotting British imports until their demands were met. Instead, they agreed on a plan that would see 20,000 men recruited to invade Canada under command of George Washington. Meanwhile, Boston prepared for war. In March 1775, General Thomas Gage (commander of British forces in North America) received orders from London to seize all military supplies in Boston; he also learned that his troops had been designated as minutemen meaning they could be called upon at any time to defend against rebel attack. In this paper we will look at how the colonies protested the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, the Tea Acts and the Coercive Acts The Stamp Act On March 22, 1765, Parliament has passed The Stamp Act. The duty of creating the Stamp Act was handed to two men. Each knew what was going on in the United States. Henry McCulloh, a land investor with holdings in North Carolina, was one of them. The other was New York Attorney General John Kempe (Nesnay, 2014, pp., np). This act required that all legal documents, newspapers, pamphlets, and even playing cards be produced on stamped paper produced in London. In George Washington, Mount Vernon, Letter to Frances Dandridge, London, 20 September 1765, he said, “The Stamp Act Imposed on the Colonies by the Parliament of Great Britain engrosses the conversation of the Speculative part of the Colonists, who look upon this unconstitutional method of Taxation as a direful attack upon their Liberties & loudly exclaim against the Violation.” Paper had never been taxed before; it was now worth about three times its original cost because not only did it have to be stamped but it also had to travel across an ocean. Newspaper publishers were hit especially hard by the act because they could not print without stamps. They responded by refusing to publish anything until after midnight on June 10, when their supplies ran out. The Stamp Act was just the beginning of a much bigger issue between England and her colonies (Nesnay, 2014, pp., np). The Stamp Act of 1765, passed by the British Parliament, is usually seen as the catalyst for the escalation of tension (Priest and duRivage, 2014, pp., 1) Most New Englanders ignored the law, which caused few problems beyond some lost business for British merchants. However, in New York City and Charleston, South Carolina, stamp collectors were attacked by mobs. In Virginia, more than 200 protesters gathered outside of Colonial Governor Francis Fauquier's home, he escaped out a back door disguised as his wife. [Nesnay, Mary. “THE STAMP ACT – A BRIEF HISTORY.” Journal of the American Revolution 2014.] [Nesnay, Mary. “THE STAMP ACT – A BRIEF HISTORY.” Journal of the American Revolution 2014.] [Priest, Claire, and Justin DuRivage. “The Stamp Act and American Institutional and Economic History.” Yale University (July 30, 2014): 1-30.] How did Americans respond to the Stamp Act? The first anti-Stamp Act protests took the shape of leaflets. Traditionally, the most popular method of objecting to legislation, parliament, colonial government, or the British monarch was to distribute pamphlets (Wagner, 2018, pp., 31). Later in Boston over 6 000 people turned out for a protest rally on October 26 – one day after Parliament passed The Stamp Act. Just two days later a group of men dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded three ships docked in Boston Harbor and dumped 342 chests of tea into the water. This famous event became known as The Boston Tea Party. British Parliament reacted with outrage and imposed new laws designed to punish Bostonians for their rebellion. They also sent troops from England to occupy Massachusetts Bay, effectively ending self-rule in that colony. During the Stamp Act, mobs were significant for two reasons: first, they expressed what written words could not, and second, they instilled dread among those who supported and defe...
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