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Principles of programming

Principles of Programmiong languages document. The document contains basic answers to the related course and can be used for reference in answering exam quesions.
A programming language is a computer language programmers use to develop
software programs, scripts , or other sets of instructions for computers
to execute .
Although many languages share similarities, each has its own syntax . Once a
programmer learns the languages rules, syntax, and structure, they write
the source code . Then, the pr ogrammer often compiles the code into machine
language that can be understood by th e computer. Scripting languages , use
an interpreter to execute the script.
Reasons for Studying of Programming
Increased capacity to express ideas :

People can easily express their ideas clearly in any language
onl y when
they have clear understanding of the natural language.
Similarly, if programmers want to simulate the features of
languages in another language, they should have some ideas regarding the
concepts in other languages as well.
Improved background f or choosing appropriate languages

Many programmers when given a choice of languages for a new
project, continue to use the language with which they are most familiar,
even if it is poorly suited to the project.

If these programmers were familiar with a w ider range of
languages, they would be better able to choose the language that includes
the features that best address the characteristics of the problem at hand.

Increased ability to learn new languages
In software development, continuous learning is ess ential.
The process of learning a new programming language can be
lengthy and difficult, especially for someone who is comfortable with
only two or more languages.
Once a thorough understanding of the fundamental concepts of
languages is acquired, it bec omes far easier to see how these concepts are
incorporated into the design of the language being learned.

Better understanding the significance of implementation
An understanding of implementation issues leads to an
understanding of why languages are d esigned the way they are.
This knowledge in turn leads to the ability to use a language more
intelligently, as it was designed to use.
We can become better programmers by understanding the choices
among programming language constructs and consequences of those

By studying the concepts of programming languages, programmers can
learn about previously unknown and unused parts of the languages they
already use and begin to use those features.

Overall advancement of computing

There is a global view of computing that can justify the study of
programming language concepts.
For example, many people believe it would have been better if
ALGOL 60 ha

displaced Fortran in the early 1960s, because it was more elegant and had much
better control statements t han Fortran. That it did not is due partly to the
programmers and software development managers of that time, many of whom did
not clearly understand the conceptual design of ALGOL 60.

If those who choose languages were better informed, perhaps, better
la nguages would eventually squeeze out poorer ones.

The popularity of a programming language depends on the features and utilities it
provides to programmers. The features that a programming language must have to
stand out are the following:
 Simplicity: the langu age must offer clear and simple concepts that facilitate
learning and application, in a way that is simple to understand and maintain.
Simplicity is a difficult balance to strike without compromise the overall
capabilty .
 Naturalness : this means that its application in the area for which it was
designed must be done naturally, providing operators, structures and syntax
for operators to work efficiently.
 Abstraction : it is the ability to define and use complicated structures or
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Principles of programming

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IT & Computer Science
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