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Legal Enforcement of Terminological Standards

Medical terms can be confusing and overwhelming, especially for individuals without a background in medicine. However, understanding these terms is essential for effective communication with healthcare providers and for making informed decisions about one's health.

Medical terms are typically based on Greek and Latin roots, prefixes, and suffixes, which are combined to form a variety of words that describe various aspects of the human body and disease. For example, the word "osteoarthritis" is derived from the Greek words "osteon," meaning bone, and "arthron," meaning joint. The suffix "-itis" indicates inflammation, so osteoarthritis literally means inflammation of the bone and joint.

Learning medical terminology can be a daunting task, but there are several strategies that can make it easier. One approach is to break down complex words into their individual parts and try to understand the meaning of each component. Another useful technique is to associate new terms with familiar words or objects, which can help to make the meaning more concrete and memorable.

In addition to improving communication with healthcare providers, understanding medical terms can also empower individuals to take a more active role in their own healthcare. By being able to read and understand medical information, individuals can make more informed decisions about their treatment options and have a better understanding of their own health status.

Overall, while learning medical terminology can be challenging, it is an important skill that can have numerous benefits for individuals and their health.

- Introduction to terminology 3-8

7th Principle

The necessity to legally enforce a standard must be studied with regard to the nature of the standard, the level of industrialization, and the laws and conditions which predominate in the society for which the standard has been prepared. The legal enforcement of terminological standards is a matter of convenience and economy and must be mindful of the regional, social, and subject groupings of language usage.

- Methods of Standardization

(Lexical devices/formation rules)

1. Redefinition of words (usually language / regular language). Normally redefinition involves a restriction of the range of denotation, as in ‘expectation’ and 'variance' in statistics, ‘real' and 'imaginary’ in number theory, or ‘filter' in electronics; occasionally the choice of the form may be entirely arbitrary or even fanciful, e.g., 'charm’ and 'strangeness' in particle physics.

2. Redefinition of existing terms. In the process of theory building, concepts are frequently re-defined, e.g., the multiple definitions of 'word' or 'sentence' in linguistics. This method is frequently used in relatively new areas of study, like most of the so-called 'social sciences’, where the conceptual system itself may be in flux, and terminologising is extensively practised as a surface indicator of scientific rigor. (two types: semantic extension / semantic extension)

3. Derivation. Exploiting the derivational properties of the sublanguage or of the general language, in which the sublanguage is embedded, and can produce highly regular forms. For example, 'de-hydr-ate', 'internal-ise/ize' use the derivational affixes de-, '-ate*, '-ise/ize' in their general language usage to create terms; while chemical language has taken over the affixes'-ous', "ic', bi-, for example, and now uses them with terminological force in their own right.

4. Composition. By juxtaposition of existing words, special terms and terms borrowed from other languages or sublanguages, complex terms can be formed, such as heavy water', 'heavy hydrogen', 'floppy disc', 'split-plot design'; if such complex terms become established, there is then the possibility that a constituent element which was not originally a term becomes one- of. the extended use of heavy' to describe certain isotopes with greater than normal mass.

5. Borrowing. Adopting a term/word from a foreign language is really a special case of redefinition. Frequently the term accompanies a concept imported from the other language community, for example, ‘input’, ‘output’. 'printer in Italian and French, 'Gestalt, Zeitgeist' in English, etc; classical Greek and Latin provide a fruitful source of terms, either for concepts, like "atom', or by supp

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