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Gender Equality in Human Resource Management

Paper instructions

You should specify a particular aim (topic/problem) of your review. When formulating the aim, you should think of your final paper. As students, you can collaborate all through the course, also as regards this literature review aiming for completing the final paper.

Choose relevant articles departing from your general research aim. Your choice can include chapters from the course literature BUT should mainly be based on your direct science interest and on FORMAL SEARCHES in data bases. Do not just choose the first articles you find; explore the field by reading abstracts “and much more”; and allocate enough time and resources on this process, enabling you to reach your aim of your final paper. It is recommended that your assessment contains at least 10, and preferably some more, articles/chapters.

Recommended number of pages for the review is 6-8, plus title list, table of content and list of references (see formatting instructions abelow). Your paper should, preferably, include the following parts:

(1) Short introduction/motivation for the review

(2) Principles/methods used for the choice of sources and type of review

(3) Assessments of key ideas/themes and research findings from the sources you have chosen.

(4) A critical assessment of the findings, applied methodologies etc., etc. of the field

(5) Possible research gaps emanating from the review

(6) A conclusion making links between these research gaps and your research interests


Gender equality and IHRM

Students Name

Institutional Affiliation


TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u 2. Methods Employed in Choosing the Type of Review and Sources PAGEREF _Toc90238605 \h 3

2.1 Methods for Choosing the Sources PAGEREF _Toc90238606 \h 3

2.2 Principles used for choosing a review type (literature review) PAGEREF _Toc90238607 \h 4

3. Key Ideas| Themes Assessments and Research Findings PAGEREF _Toc90238608 \h 4

4. Applied methodology and critical assessment of the findings. PAGEREF _Toc90238609 \h 6

4.1 Applied methodology PAGEREF _Toc90238610 \h 6

4.2 Critical assessment/analysis of the findings PAGEREF _Toc90238611 \h 6

5. Research gaps PAGEREF _Toc90238612 \h 7

6. Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc90238613 \h 8

References PAGEREF _Toc90238614 \h 9


Gender equality refers to the organizational culture where men and women share similar and equal responsibilities, opportunities, benefits, obligations, rights, and outcomes. In IHRM, an organization that embraces gender equality offers the same treatment for all employees. Equal treatment in this perspective involves; providing promotion and progression opportunities to all genders, equal compensation rates for comparable roles, and equal consideration of individual needs. However, studies suggest that many countries are yet to achieve equality between male and female employees. Gender inequality is also known as gender stratification, discrimination, or differentiation associated with the disputation that biological differences between men and women (two sexes) have been adopted to give justifications for biased treatment of women in the workplace (Ogunrin et al., 2010). In most gendered countries, gender inequality continues to prevail daily in the form of occupational gender segregation and gender pay gaps, with most countries conforming to gender as only men and women, leaving out non-binary and trans and gender diverse people. Studies also show that inequalities experienced in the workplace are due to structured HR practices such as wage determination and the hiring process. IHRM is gendered in all kinds of ways, with men dominating at the top jobs and highest paying levels (Stahl et al., 2012). Gender equality issues have been researched from distinct perspectives, with some HR experts writing studies under androcentrism, sexism, and patriarchy to investigate the unfairness experienced by women in a male-centred world. This paper aims to review the findings of the articles discussing gender equality in HRM practices and how gender inequality continues to exist internationally. It will also increase awareness of gender inequality topics and provide information that will complement previous HRM gender studies and theories.

2. Methods Employed in Choosing the Type of Review and Sources

2.1 Methods for Choosing the Sources

The literature review concerning gender equality in HRM was carried out in several steps. The initial goal was to find the articles that relate to the review and can fit perfectly. Article search was done by employing as the primary source of information. Search terms to select the articles investigating gender, such as gender equality, gender inequality, gendered practices, gender differentiation, stratification, discrimination practices, diversity, etc., were used. As I was interested in how gender inequality occurs in organizations, I selected empirical studies that have case studies. The selection involved the articles that investigated gender equality and also theoretical papers. I defined the term gender equality in HRM beforehand, as part of the paper focuses on the question of inequality in international organizations. I also checked on the references of the articles generated in the first search and found potential, impressive articles. In assessing the articles to see whether they fit the literature review, a broader gender IHRM concept was used. The articles were scanned using terms like HR practices, human resource management, IHRM recruitment and hiring process, equal opportunity, etc., to ensure I did not miss relevant articles. Several papers were not chosen because they did not focus on the gender HRM concept. Furthermore, before I decided to incorporate what I found in databases into my assignment, I evaluated the sources to ensure they had pertinent and valuable information.

The evaluation criteria involve;

Currency – looking at the dates on which the information was published and if currency matters in the topic of discussion. Gender equality in HRM is not widely researched; hence, my sources are dated not more than 15 years ago. The information is also current and reliable.

Accuracy – if the information provided is based on evidence, error-free, reliable, and can be verified using other sources. I choose the articles which are reliable and have case studies to prove the facts.

Objectivity – evaluating the intentions of the information purposes. Suppose the information is biased or has facts or opinions.

Authority – this involves looking at the author, if they are qualified to write about the topics and if they are from a reputable institution. The authors of gender equality topics I selected are experts in that field and students from reputable universities researching the topic of interest.

Coverage – The information covered provides all my information needs with in-depth coverage (Libraryguides. Edu, 2021).

A total of 11 articles remained that I used to include and analyze in the literature review. These articles were analyzed and assessed to find gender equality approaches in HRM.

2.2 Principles used for choosing a review type (literature review)

A literature review must provide an extensive discussion of the previously done research on the same topic.

It provides a summary of the topic of significant articles. In this case, the review summarizes the findings of gender equality/inequality articles in HRM.

It compares how different experts or authors discussed the same topic. The literature review employed the use of articles discussed by different authors and how they handled gender equality topics.

It must synthesize the topic's past ideas and search for literature gaps. The review will look into what needs to be investigated further in gender and IHRM.

It should also map out questions that require further research and identify controversial areas. For example, what should organizations do to improve gender equality HR practices?

3. Key Ideas| Themes Assessments and Research Findings

Gender equality in HRM

Studies show that despite the efforts done in legislative and political approaches, gender equality has never been achieved internationally. A study done by Gustafsson (2018) illustrates that gender inequality exists in economic opportunity in the form of women lacking managerial and senior official positions, pay gaps, and occupational gender segregation. Studies show that organizations play a role in sustaining these inequalities, for example, during the recruitment process. The role of selection processes and recruitment have different factors that lead to gender inequalities (Rivera, 2017). Structured gender stereotypes and their assumptions influence the perception of employees' competence. Feminine stereotypes are associated with features such as kindness, nurturing, sensitivity, helplessness, and emotionality (Khan et al., 2019). On the contrary, masculinity is linked to agentic features like confidence, aggression, independence, and goal orientation. Masculine stereotypes are perceived positively and predicted as higher competence. Studies suggest that the illustrated stereotyp

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