The digestive system is a system that initiates breaking down nutrients from fluids and food ingested and absorbing the nutrients. This helps in essential activities in the body such as the development and repairing of cells. However, the system has six main functions which are; food ingestion in the mouth, aids in the production of digestive enzymes and fluids, assists in the mixing of food and transporting them all through the body, breaking down bigger particles of food into simpler food particles, helps in the absorption of nutrients and finally aids in the removal of waste from the body (Svihus&B.,2014). Moreover, the immune system serves a crucial purpose in the human body. It is a system that shields one’s body from pathogens, harmful substances, and cell changes that can make one sick. In addition to this, there is a vital system in the human body called the cardiovascular system. It comprises the heart, blood vessels, and blood. The cardiovascular system's main functions are; to facilitate transportation of nutrients, transportation of blood rich in oxygen to all parts of the body, and transport the deoxygenated blood from body parts to the lungs.
Which substances did terry lack causing pernicious anemia?
Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune disease that affects the gastric mucosa damaging the absorption of vitamin B12 causing vitamin B12 deficiency in the body. The main purpose of vitamin 12 is for the production of blood cells and myelination of nerves. The deficiency of vitamins B12leads to a disorder called megaloblastic anemia. However, pernicious anemia is an example of megaloblastic anemia. Megaloblastic anemia is caused by intrinsic factors. This is a glycoprotein that holds up cobalamin consequently making it possible to be absorbed by the terminal ileum. The autoimmune initial of pernicious anemia is therefore supported by parietal cells and intrinsic factors of autoantibodies later causing autoimmune disorders. Diagnosis of this disease is key since it can bring some complications later on. Its symptoms are diverse and tricky at the commencement of the disorder.it includes general weakness, fatigue, paresthesia, whiteness, and lack of self-control. The disorder may relate to other autoimmune diseases or maybe genetic generated.
What is the correlation between the destruction of parietal cells and vitamin B12?
Parietal cells are cells found in the stomach that is responsible to produce hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factors. They are deep and infoldings to provide a large surface area for maximum production of hydrochloric acid. Intrinsic factor is the production of a glycol protein by the parietal cells which are found in the fundus and the gastric body. Inadequacy of the intrinsic factor leads to destructive homeostatic behavior. Notably, intrinsic factors are responsible for transporting and absorbing a crucial nutrient which is vitamin B12 by the terminal ileum. Additionally, this homeostatic change may lead to neurological and neutropenia disorders. In some cases, it may lead to a serious cardiovascular disorder. As we have stated previously is that pernicious anemia is caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. The release of the vitamin relies highly on the pH that is the acidic surrounding. Consequently, the mass destruction of a parietal cell causes significant loss of acid in the stomach and vitamin B12 absorption. Due to the lack of vitamin B12, it c