Determining the Total Distance Traveled and the Time Taken to Travel
Determine the total time taken to cover that distance. This could also be given or measured separately. Again, ensure that the time is in the same unit as the distance.
Plug the values into the formula: Divide the total distance by the total time to calculate the average speed. The result will be the time mean speed of the object.
1. determination of a spot speed
Spot speed: This is the instantaneous speed of vehicle at a specified section or location.
Travel speed: It is the effective speed with which a vehicle travels a particular route between two stations.
travel speed= total distance traveltotal time taken (including delays)
Determination of a spot speed:
Manual method
By Radar Speed Meter
Manual method:
The determination of spot speed by manual method involves calculating the average speed of an object over a given period of time. To calculate the spot speed, you need to know the total distance traveled by the object and the total time taken to cover that distance.
The formula to calculate average speed is:
spot speed= total distance total time
Here's a stepbystep guide on how to determine the spot speed:
1. Determine the total distance traveled by the object. This could be given in the problem statement or obtained from other measurements. Make sure the distance is measured in the same unit as the time you will be using.
2. Determine the total time taken to cover that distance. This could also be given or measured separately. Again, ensure that the time is in the same unit as the distance.
3. Plug the values into the formula: Divide the total distance by the total time to calculate the average speed. The result will be the time mean speed of the object.
For example, let's say a car traveled a total distance of 300 kilometers in a total time of 5 hours. To determine the spot speed, we can use the formula:
Average Speed = Total Distance/Total Time
Average Speed = 300 km/5 hours
Average Speed = 60 km/h
Therefore, the time mean speed of the car is 60 kilometers per hour.
Remember to ensure that the units for distance and time are consistent throughout the calculation.
Observations of Spot Speed Taken At College Road:
Date: 21/02/2023 (Afternoon)
Distance: 50m = 0.05km
Sr. No
Vehicle type
Vehicle no.
Time
(hrs.)
Speed (km/hrs.) =
Total Distance(km)/Total Time(hrs.)
1
Car
9987
0.00173
28.89
2
Car
2774
0.00217
22.98
3
Car
6247
0.00186
26.74
4
Bus
0673
0.00185
26.90
5
Tempo
1553
0.00218
22.92
6
Car
8477
0.00171
29.07
7
Car
7665
0.00171
29.22
8
Car
5586
0.00223
22.38
9
Car
6743
0.00203
24.60
10
Car
0935
0.00174
28.60
11
Tempo
2101
0.00193
25.90
12
Car
839
0.00167
30
13
Car
7478
0.00186
26.86
14
Rickshaw
3544
0.00227
21.92
15
Car
1139
0.00167
30
16
Car
9389
0.00167
30
17
Car
4577
0.00185
26.98
18
Tempo
5562
0.00247
20.22
19
Tempo
7277
0.00165
30.20
20
Car
7637
0.00152
32.84
21
Tempo
8979
0.00243
20.54
22
Car
6635
0.00177
28.16
23
Bus
9826
0.00223
22.38
24
Car
8743
0.00206
24.03
25
Car
1478
0.00149
33.51
26
Car
6300
0.00167
30
3333751206500
[Observations of spot speed taken at college road]
Radar Speed Guns:
Radar guns are widely used by law enforcement officers to measure the speed of vehicles. These devices emit a radar beam, which bounces off the moving vehicle and returns to the gun. The radar gun calculates the speed of the vehicle based on the change in frequency of the returning signal.
[radar meter]
Key Steps to a Radar Meter Spot Speed Study: 
A radar meter spot speed study includes four key steps:
1. Select proper location and placement of radar meter.
2. Determine an appropriate selection strategy.
3. Record observations on radar meter spot speed study data form.
4. Generate frequency distribution table and determine speed percentiles
Observation of a spot speed by radar meter at college road:
Date: 09/05/2023 (Afternoon)
Sr. no.
Type of vehicle
Number of vehicle
Speed (km\hrs.)
1
Car
5186
37
2
Tempo
1790
45
3
Van
5970
37
4
Car
3038
22
5
Tempo
7262
28
6
Rickshaw
0556
25
7
Tempo
0669
27
8
Scooter
8001
28
9
Car
4333
21
10
Rickshaw
5782
23
11
Car
9853
30
12
Scooter
7233
30
13
Car
3744
24
14
Scooter
3334
21
15
Car
8173
31
16
Truck

19
17
Car
7555
24
18
Car
3940
22
19
Rickshaw
5777
21
20
Car
2790
18
21
Car
0849
22
22
Car
0328
24
23
Scooter
2848
27
24
Car
2736
24
25
Car
2829
28
26
Car
7728
36
27
Car
0165
21
28
Tempo
9225
23
29
Rickshaw
5393
29
30
Scooter
5355
24
[observations of spot speed taken by radar meter at college road]
Speed and delay study
The speed and delay studies give the running speeds, overall speeds, fluctuations in speeds and the delay between two stations of a road.
It gives the information such as the amount, location, duration and cause of delay in the traffic stream.
The result of the spot and delay studies are useful in detecting the spot of congestion.
The delay or time lost traffic during the travel period may be either due to fixed delays or operational delays.
Fixed delay occurs primarily at intersections due to traffic signals and at level crossings.
Operational delays are caused by the interference of traffic movement, such as turning vehicles, parking vehicles, pedestrians etc.
Methods of speed and delay study: 
1. Floating car or moving observer method
2. Interview method
3. Test car method
4. Elevated observer method
5. Registrations method 6. Photographic technique
Floating car method: 
Requirements:
4 observers, area map
2 stop watches
test vehicle
tape recorder
record book
procedure:
One observer is seated in the floating car with two stop watches.
One of the stop watches is used to record the time at various control points like intersections, bridges or any other fixed points in each trip. The other stop watch is used to find the duration of individual delays.
The time, location cause of these delays are recorded by the second observer either on suitable tabular forms or by voice recordings equipment. The number of vehicles overtaking the test vehicle and that overtaken by the test vehicle are