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# Determining the Total Distance Traveled and the Time Taken to Travel

Instructions:
Determine the total distance traveled by the object. This could be given in the problem statement or obtained from other measurements. Make sure the distance is measured in the same unit as the time you will be using.

Determine the total time taken to cover that distance. This could also be given or measured separately. Again, ensure that the time is in the same unit as the distance.

Plug the values into the formula: Divide the total distance by the total time to calculate the average speed. The result will be the time mean speed of the object.
Content:

1. determination of a spot speed

Spot speed: This is the instantaneous speed of vehicle at a specified section or location.

Travel speed: It is the effective speed with which a vehicle travels a particular route between two stations.

travel speed= total distance traveltotal time taken (including delays)

Determination of a spot speed:

Manual method

Manual method:

The determination of spot speed by manual method involves calculating the average speed of an object over a given period of time. To calculate the spot speed, you need to know the total distance traveled by the object and the total time taken to cover that distance.

The formula to calculate average speed is:

spot speed= total distance total time

Here's a step-by-step guide on how to determine the spot speed:

1. Determine the total distance traveled by the object. This could be given in the problem statement or obtained from other measurements. Make sure the distance is measured in the same unit as the time you will be using.

2. Determine the total time taken to cover that distance. This could also be given or measured separately. Again, ensure that the time is in the same unit as the distance.

3. Plug the values into the formula: Divide the total distance by the total time to calculate the average speed. The result will be the time mean speed of the object.

For example, let's say a car traveled a total distance of 300 kilometers in a total time of 5 hours. To determine the spot speed, we can use the formula:

Average Speed = Total Distance/Total Time

Average Speed = 300 km/5 hours

Average Speed = 60 km/h

Therefore, the time mean speed of the car is 60 kilometers per hour.

Remember to ensure that the units for distance and time are consistent throughout the calculation.

Observations of Spot Speed Taken At College Road:

Date: 21/02/2023 (Afternoon)

Distance: 50m = 0.05km

Sr. No

Vehicle type

Vehicle no.

Time

(hrs.)

Speed (km/hrs.) =

Total Distance(km)/Total Time(hrs.)

1

Car

9987

0.00173

28.89

2

Car

2774

0.00217

22.98

3

Car

6247

0.00186

26.74

4

Bus

0673

0.00185

26.90

5

Tempo

1553

0.00218

22.92

6

Car

8477

0.00171

29.07

7

Car

7665

0.00171

29.22

8

Car

5586

0.00223

22.38

9

Car

6743

0.00203

24.60

10

Car

0935

0.00174

28.60

11

Tempo

2101

0.00193

25.90

12

Car

839

0.00167

30

13

Car

7478

0.00186

26.86

14

Rickshaw

3544

0.00227

21.92

15

Car

1139

0.00167

30

16

Car

9389

0.00167

30

17

Car

4577

0.00185

26.98

18

Tempo

5562

0.00247

20.22

19

Tempo

7277

0.00165

30.20

20

Car

7637

0.00152

32.84

21

Tempo

8979

0.00243

20.54

22

Car

6635

0.00177

28.16

23

Bus

9826

0.00223

22.38

24

Car

8743

0.00206

24.03

25

Car

1478

0.00149

33.51

26

Car

6300

0.00167

30

3333751206500

[Observations of spot speed taken at college road]

Radar guns are widely used by law enforcement officers to measure the speed of vehicles. These devices emit a radar beam, which bounces off the moving vehicle and returns to the gun. The radar gun calculates the speed of the vehicle based on the change in frequency of the returning signal.

Key Steps to a Radar Meter Spot Speed Study: -

A radar meter spot speed study includes four key steps:

1. Select proper location and placement of radar meter.

2. Determine an appropriate selection strategy.

3. Record observations on radar meter spot speed study data form.

4. Generate frequency distribution table and determine speed percentiles

Date: 09/05/2023 (Afternoon)

Sr. no.

Type of vehicle

Number of vehicle

Speed (km\hrs.)

1

Car

5186

37

2

Tempo

1790

45

3

Van

5970

37

4

Car

3038

22

5

Tempo

7262

28

6

Rickshaw

0556

25

7

Tempo

0669

27

8

Scooter

8001

28

9

Car

4333

21

10

Rickshaw

5782

23

11

Car

9853

30

12

Scooter

7233

30

13

Car

3744

24

14

Scooter

3334

21

15

Car

8173

31

16

Truck

-

19

17

Car

7555

24

18

Car

3940

22

19

Rickshaw

5777

21

20

Car

2790

18

21

Car

0849

22

22

Car

0328

24

23

Scooter

2848

27

24

Car

2736

24

25

Car

2829

28

26

Car

7728

36

27

Car

0165

21

28

Tempo

9225

23

29

Rickshaw

5393

29

30

Scooter

5355

24

Speed and delay study

The speed and delay studies give the running speeds, overall speeds, fluctuations in speeds and the delay between two stations of a road.

It gives the information such as the amount, location, duration and cause of delay in the traffic stream.

The result of the spot and delay studies are useful in detecting the spot of congestion.

The delay or time lost traffic during the travel period may be either due to fixed delays or operational delays.

Fixed delay occurs primarily at intersections due to traffic signals and at level crossings.

Operational delays are caused by the interference of traffic movement, such as turning vehicles, parking vehicles, pedestrians etc.

Methods of speed and delay study: -

1. Floating car or moving observer method

2. Interview method

3. Test car method

4. Elevated observer method

5. Registrations method 6. Photographic technique

Floating car method: -

Requirements:

4 observers, area map

2 stop watches

test vehicle

tape recorder

record book

procedure:

One observer is seated in the floating car with two stop watches.

One of the stop watches is used to record the time at various control points like intersections, bridges or any other fixed points in each trip. The other stop watch is used to find the duration of individual delays.

The time, location cause of these delays are recorded by the second observer either on suitable tabular forms or by voice recordings equipment. The number of vehicles overtaking the test vehicle and that overtaken by the test vehicle are

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