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10 pages/≈2750 words
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APA
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Communications & Media
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Annotated Bibliography
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English (U.S.)
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Topic:

Conflict Resolution and Negotiation (Annotated Bibliography Sample)

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Annotated bibliography on how conflicts between co workers or nations can be resolved

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Content:

Conflict Resolution And Negotiation
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Abstract
CONFLICTS ARE A CHARACTERISTIC OF HUMANITY. IT TAKES THOROUGH RESEARCH IN ORDER TO IDENTIFY CAUSES OF CONFLICT AND HOW TO RESOLVE IT. NEGOTIATION FORMS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT MITIGATION MEASURE FOR RESOLVING CONFLICT. IT AVERTS HOSTILITY BETWEEN CONFLICTING PARTIES. HOWEVER, SOME CONFLICTS ARE COMPLEX AND REQUIRE COMPLEX MEASURES TO RESOLVE. THE NATURE OF CONFLICT VARIES WITH THE CAUSE AS WELL AS THE PARTIES INVOLVED. MOST RESOLUTION MEASURES ARE THEORETICAL RATHER THAN PRACTICAL.
Keywords: Negotiation, Conflict resolution
Cao, E. Y., Cao, Y., Prasad, R., & Shen, Z. (2011). U.S.-China Exchange Rate Negotiation: Stakeholders' Participation and Strategy Deployment. Business and Politics, 3(13), Article 6,Doi: 10.2202/1469-3569.1368
The article highlights conflict surrounding exchange rates between USA and China. The conflict surrounds deliberate undervaluing of China’s RMB currency, which according to critics, accords it an unfair advantage.
The author uses straightforward language to communicate to a lay man seeking to understand the process of fixing exchange rates. Countries table their own negotiation strategies from which policy makers conduct simulation that result in consensus. Undervaluation can stimulate economic growth of a developing country. The article also illustrates the effect of trade and political pressure in achieving stable rate of exchange. The article explains how China continues to grow economically while other counties recede.
The article is informative and uses language that is easy to comprehend. It also helps a learner to understand the source of conflict and the benefits that China enjoys by undervaluing its currency.
Dicaprio, A., & Trommer, S. (2010). Bilateral Graduation: The Impact of EPAs on LDC Trade Space. Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 46, No. 9, 1607–1627. Doi: 10.1080/00220381003706502
The authors of the article are trying to establish the impact that the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with the European union has in enabled the recognition and mitigation of measures to promote Least Developed Countries (LDC) participation at the world trade organization (WTO).
The article is articulate in highlighting the impact of the negotiations which marked an increase in participation of LDC’s in WTO forums. Through usage of ordinary words, the authors have succeeded in showing how participation by LDC’s has improved across different regimes. The authors also explain the difficulties that face LDCs when trying to fit in the international trade system. The authors also appraise the cordial relationship that LDCs in the EPA have developed enhancing their ability to negotiate larger presence in the international market.
Overall, the article addresses the challenges LDCs face and how the EPA negotiations have enabled the countries to overcome spillover effects as a result of over dependence on agricultural goods, which are weather dependent. The article also points out to a possibility of LDCs employing other negotiation strategies in future.
Dieperink, C. (2011). International water negotiations under asymmetry, Lessons from the Rhine chlorides dispute settlement. Int Environ Agreements 11, 139-157. Doi: 10.1007/s10784-010-9129-3
The author points out to a complex conflict situation whereby, the parties hold different preferences towards a common resource.
The author provides a scenario where all stakeholders in a resource agree to shoulder the burden in order to promote cordial relations. One side benefitting from a project is not enough reason to reprimand especially when they cannot handle the responsibility. The article elaborates the issue of asymmetry. Disputes resolution process may take a complex form when many players sharing a resource are involved, even though some stand to benefit at the expense of others. The model, therefore, does not seek equality, but rather, integrity of relationship between conflicting states. The article expresses a synergistic approach towards finding a solution to a common problem, thus averting conflict.
The article elaborates complex situations which require other beneficiaries to compromise rather than rise against the errant player in the conflict. The article gives general information on conflict and points out to diverting attention from one problem to address other issues.
Fey, M., Ramsey, K.W. (2011). Uncertainty and Incentives in Crisis Bargaining: Game-Free Analysis of International Conflict. American Journal of Political Science, 1(55), 149-169. Doi: 10.1111/j.1540-5907.2010.00486.x
The article introduces a theoretical framework for valuating why conflicting countries may be unable to reach a level ground for dispute resolution.
The article targets scholars Who wish to explore areas of theoretical frameworks in conflict resolutions. As such, the article does not offer a solution to conflict, but rather compares theoretical frameworks to develop statistical data. Simulation of the data using statistical tools yields central conclusions. However, the conclusions are not static and change whenever the variables change. The article is restrictive to simulating risks and costs in conflicts involving war. The author emphasizes challenges presented by warring countries who are unwilling to share private information.
The article lacks generalization that would encourage use of the approach in mitigating measures to counteract conflict. It, however, expands the scope of thinking to encourage deep research in simulation models. At the same time, the model discourages assumptions in the study through the development of statistical data. The model also fails in predicting at what point in a conflict combat is imminent.
Godard, J. (2011). What has happened to strikes? British Journal of Industrial Relations, 2(49), 282-305. Doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8543.2011.00853.x
The author seeks to identify with the purpose of strikes and how strikes have evolved over time. The author focuses on purpose, structure and theory behind industrial conflicts.
The article distinguishes industrial conflicts from conventional positivists’ view of strikes. The author takes the mind of the reader back in time to the inception of strikes and the underlying factors. Comparison of strike data from different countries creates ground for the formation of a theoretical framework from which conclusion s and possible solutions for strikes can be derived. The article points out to inequalities in legal rights and weak social structures as mitigating factors to industrial conflicts.
The article is elaborate on the process of industrial conflicts. It creates room for criticism as well as providing answers to complex questions surrounding strikes. It also explains the reduction in industrial unrest as countries strive to equalize labor. However, the article does not provide practical solutions based on study, but rather, theoretical solutions.
Harhay, M.O. (2011). Water stress and water scarcity: a global problem. American Journal of Public Health, 8(101), Doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300277
The article seeks to enlighten on sources of conflict. It expresses water scarcity as a global cause of conflict. This is a problem to countries that depend on water for food security. The author challenges researchers and scholars to carryout studies and provide literature that supports water scarcity as a source of conflict.
The article uses descriptive language to enhance the reader’s understanding of issues surrounding water and conflict. The author points out to skewed representation of reality, which fails to illustrate the magnitude of water scarcity. The article points out to issues of water scarcity not being a pertinent issue in developed economies. The author muses over poor rly developed discussions on water scarcity considering the effect on public health status.
The article is straightforward and articulate in providing summarized information on water scarcity as a source of conflict. However, it fails to map out the route of propagation to conflict such scarcity presents.
Keyuan, Z. (2010). The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea: Procedures, Practices, and Asian States. Ocean Development & International Law, 41, 131–151. Doi: 10.1080/00908321003733121
The author recognizes that diverse conflicts exist and require diverse measures to address. In the article, the author recognizes the role that international organizations play in settling disputes.
The article presents arbitration as the approach of choice in settling international disputes where a country holds no preference among available resolution strategies. The central focus of the article is use of arbitration to solve disputes involving trespass in international waters. The author uses case studies to show areas of application of arbitration to solve conflicts arising from confiscation of sea vessels. The author points out on some of the consequences arising from withholding of sea vessels to both the detaining state and the flag state. The article presents a scenario where the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) may promote prompt release of vessels based on humanitarian grounds rather than dispute. The author goes ahead to expose differences and similarities in international bodies of law and how their differences affect dispute resolution.
The article is successful in demonstrating flexibility in dispute resolution at different levels of conflict. The role of negotiation is, however, restricted to international bodies rather than the conflicting states.
Lopez, C.M.A., Marsa, I.M., Ibanez, G., Carral,J.A., Velasco, J.R. (2010). Improving trade-offs in automated bilateral negotiations for expressive and inexpressive scenarios. Journal of Int...
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