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Literature & Language
Annotated Bibliography
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Annotated Bibliography Assignemnt On Health Care Finance (Annotated Bibliography Sample)


Provide an annotated bibliography of 10 empirical articles related to your research topic. Include the following for each article:
The article citation and persistent link. These are not included in the total word count. Be sure to verify the accuracy of the reference formatting as these can change during the insertion process.
A written summary of the key concept(s) of the article. Why was the study done? What was the population studied? What did the researcher(s) conclude? What other information about this study do you believe is unique or important to recall? Are there specific statements made by the author that you wish to retain?


Pre Residency-Annotated Bibliography: Health Care Workers and Nosocomial Infections - Attitudes, Behaviour and Knowledge in the Sterile Processing Departments in Acute Hospitals
Haile, T. G., Engeda, E. H., & Abdo, A. A. (2017). Compliance with Standard Precautions and Associated Factors among Healthcare Workers in Gondar University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Journal of environmental and public health, 2017... Retrieved from /journals/jeph/2017/2050635/
These authors aimed to evaluate the compliance of health care workers to standard precautions and associated factors. They applied an institution-based cross sectional study for two months commencing the first day of March 2014 to the last day of April of the same year. They concluded that compliance among the health care workers to standard precautions is very low. These authors use extensive literature review to solidify the background of their research study. This study is conducted in North West Ethiopia with a planned convenient sample size that was established by applying the single population proportion formula which hypothesizes that there exists five percent margin of error, ninety percent confidence interval, ten percent nonresponse rate and fifty percent proportion as there existed no prior study. They settled on a sample size of four hundred and twenty three who were selected using the simple random sampling technique. They applied structured, self-distributed questionnaires which were developed in line with Ethiopian national infection prevention and patient safety guideline. For statistical analysis, the data was inputted into the Epi info 3.5.1 and the Statistical Packaging for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0.
They posit that standard precautions are cost-effective tactics of controlling and preventing nosocomial infections. The associated factors for compliance identified in this study include; accessibility of personal protective equipment, training on infection prevention, being female healthcare worker, higher perception of infection risk and management support. These are industrial and organisational psychology’s domain which if effectively applied will help in the prevention and control of nosocomial infections. The authors recommend consistent management support and training of healthcare workers on standard precautions. They discovered that the compliant health care workers were mostly protecting themselves and not protecting patients, visitors and the community at large as the guidelines stipulate. Notably, these authors declare no competing interests and assured data quality by pre-testing the simulated questionnaires and training and supervising the data collectors. Their findings were consistent with other studies such as Parmeggiani et al., (2010).
Zhou, Y., Zhang, D., Chen, Y., Zhou, S., Pan, S., Huang, Y., & Ba-Thein, W. (2014). Healthcare-associated infections and Shanghai clinicians: a multicentre cross-sectional study. PloS one, 9(8), e105838. Retrieved from
These authors identify that there is limited research regarding nosocomial infections in China. They purposed to fill the study gap of the limited research regarding nosocomial infections in regards to health care workers’ attitudes, knowledge, risk and practice in Shanghai. They, too, use multiple literatures to build their research. They concur that hospital acquired infections are a menace to the society. They used questionnaire-survey instrument to carry out their cross-sectional self-distributed, anonymous survey on the hospital-based nurses and physicians. With the four classes/grades of hospitals, they selected participants and hospitals by convenience .Two hospitals were picked from each grade. The design of the questionnaires was in line with the United States-Centers for Disease Control (US-CDC)'s healthcare-associated infection concept and precautions. They used the SPSS version 13 for data analysis. Chi-square, t-test, one way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and regression analysis methods were applied in the statistics. These method were all two-tailed and statististically significant.
The study concluded that there is great awareness, substandard adherence and inconsistent knowledge of infection control precautions. Like Haile., Engeda & Abdo (2017), they discovered self-protective attitudes among the nurses and physicians regarding nosocomial infections with potential risk to the vulnerable patients and others. Attitudes, knowledge and behaviours of these studied care providers align with that of other studies and further necessitate the application of industrial and organisational psychology in health care settings. They recommend continued training, enforcement of knowledge-informed practice, upgrade of institutional guidelines, advancement of healthcare safety culture and reinforcement of quality information resource. Notably, they list their inferencing, their sampling technique of convenience, bias and missing data as possible limitations to their research. The authors further advocate for behavioural and social health care safety elements of infection control.
With adequate literature research, Jing-Jy established the risks and prevalence of nosocomial infections. This was also a cross-sectional study with self-reported survey carried out in Bandung, Indonesia. This also focused on the attitudes, traits, behaviour and knowledge of the surveyed health care workers in relation to hospital acquired infections. The author aimed to evaluate the attitude, knowledge and behaviour of Indonesian nurses in regards to nosocomial infections and the relationship between the three variables. The studies included one hundred and fifteen emergency department nurses from the four sampled hospitals. Keen to note is that the study was ethically approved by the Institutional Review Board of Hasan Sadikin Bandung General Hospital.
The author applied Mann-Whitney U-test , correlational analysis, Kruskal-Walis test, one-way ANOVA, t-tests, Spearman correlation as well as mean statistics to analyse the data using the SPSS. The tests were all statistically significant. The research finding were aligned with Haile., Engeda & Abdo (2017) and Zhou et al.,(2014) that even with high awareness and positive attitudes towards these infection, their behaviours did not reflect positive infection control. This author uses Zhou et al.,(2014) to show the alignment of the findings to prior researches. The author concluded that there are low behaviour scores even with the positive attitudes, awareness and high risk of nosocomial infections. Its limitations were similar to those of Zhou et al.,(2014) and advocated for future global researches to explore the geographical and demographic differences of participants.
Parmeggiani, C., Abbate, R., Marinelli, P., & Angelillo, I. F. (2010). Healthcare workers and health care-associated infections: knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in emergency departments in Italy. BMC infectious diseases, 10(1), 35..Retrieved from /publication/41547652_Healthcare_workers_and_health_care-associated_infections_Knowledge_attitudes_and_behavior_in_emergency_departments_in_Italy
This study has been widely referenced by other scholars on the same topic. The study aimed at evaluating the knowledge, attitudes and compliance in regards to standard precautions pertaining nosocomial infections among the health care providers in the emergency department and their determinant factors. The authors use emergency department as they identify these as high potential risk areas for nosocomial infections. They focus on simple infection control guidelines such as hand hygiene. This study was carried out in an area in Italy. It used a cross-sectional design to carry out research over eight randomly sampled non-teaching acute public hospitals in Italy. The research was carried out between April 2006 and July 2007. The study used all the five hundred and fifty emergency department health care workers. The questionnaires had five sections; sources of information, demographic data, knowledge, practices and attitudes.
The findings from the emergency department health care workers indicated positive attitudes, great knowledge yet low compliance in regards to compliance to standard infection control measures and precautions. These findings are consistence with the finding of the other literatures. They also recommend the enforcement of actions for implementing health care precautions and extensive training on the importance of the same. The authors posit that the measurements and design pose as potential limitations in this study. The statistics methods applied in this study were significant and two-tailed. The variables were well represented in the five-phased questionnaires so as to collect accurate, complete and reliable data.
Mody, L., Bradley, S. F., Galecki, A., Olmsted, R. N., Fitzgerald, J. T., Kauffman, C. A., ... & Krein, S. L. (2011). Conceptual model for reducing infections and antimicrobial resistance in skilled nursing facilities: focusing on residents with indwelling devices. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 52(5), 654-661. Doi: 10.1093/cid/ciq205. Retrieved from
These authors set a comprehensive background with a conceptual framework to introduce the research problem. The conceptual...
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