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Campeau, H. (2015). ‘Police Culture’ at Work: Making Sense of Police Oversight. British journal of criminology, azu093.
The article by Campeau, (2015) which revolves around police studies, demonstrates that the concept of police culture is depicted based on various values such as suspicion, solidarity among others. In this article, Campeau supports the conceptualization of this concept drawing on different disciplines like sociology. Moreover, the author believes that police culture is a resource that actors use in a given institutional limitations. The article used 100 interviews and observations in the police department to assess how police negotiate meaning in an occupational setting. They assessed tow variables of culture mission and solidarity. In short, Campeau represented an explicit attempt to theorize police culture while appealing to adaptive structures to utilize culture in a definable set of structuring conditions.
Cockcroft, T. (2012). Police culture: themes and concepts. Routledge.
According to Cockcroft, (2012) police culture has been widely discussed by policy makers, students, scholars and the larger public. Nonetheless, the author indicates that literature on police culture has demonstrated to be varied, extensive and prone to inconsistency. While this has contributed to a riveting yet complex body of information that continues to rouse interest, the discussion has principally escaped broader commentary. In this book, the author presents a detailed overview of police culture mainly highlighting on information of organizational culture. From the beginning, the book develops the topic of police culture as an occupational response to the distinctiveness of police responsibilities and in where readers’ understanding is hampered by the operation, definition and analytical elements. As such, the author charts readers understanding of police culture using conventional explanations to modernize the force. It also puts emphasis on the tension between issues of continuity in policy as well as change. In addition, Cockcroft, (2012) focuses on research from the 1950s through to the twenty-first century in different countries like the United States and the UK. It also demonstrates how previous historical patterns of police responsibility have transformed to the current epoch. This is purposed to implant the complexity overlooked by deterministic definitions seeking to abridge police social world.
Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 15 (2):183-200.
The legitimacy is considered as a process through which coercive decisions are formulated. However, Emanuela, (2012) states that justice has been standardly regarded as a substantial issue that deals with moral justification of social collaboration terms. In that view, theorization about procedures appears suitable for moral justification from a social perspective. To support the element of procedural justice as an important technique to justice, the author highlights on various issues including; those in charge of practicing coercive power; terms that participants in scheme interact; and the way of allocating costs and benefits generated by collaboration. Legitimacy is concerned with coercive power while justice entails allocation of cost and benefits generated by collaboration; and terms used by participants to a scheme. Even though the suitability of procedural justice is debatable with reference to the distribution of costs and benefits produced by collaboration, it appears to be effective in addressing justice associated issues in terms used by participants in a scheme to interact. Emanuela shows that this is attained by highlighting on the intrinsic moral suitability of the manner individuals are treated by procedures they interact with.
Grant, J. D., & Toch, H. (2012). Police as problem solvers. Springer Science & Business Media.
The authors of this book are of the view that the police culture should involve police reforms that hinge on a problem-based policing. The strategy has been considered as an idealistic revolution and radical to policing. While other scholars suggest that problem-based policing involves a remarkable redefinition of police culture, these developments are vital and it is necessary for knowledgeable persons to reflect about it. However, Grant & Toch (2012) purpose is different from the views of other scholars on the concept of police culture. This is because the authors highlight on problem-based policing from the perspective where battles are waged instead of wars. In addition, the authors are interested in the erstwhile or “basics” or human equation. Basically, Grant & Toch are concerned with encounters that are problem-centered and the manner in which such encounters can be engendered. Unexpectedly, these grass root assessments occur to address problem-based policing that empowers police in the planning as well as thinking process. Moreover, the book shows that battles achieved by problem-based policing are ordinary police who become strategists in police organizations. This is an important book that shows how police can become change agents. It also has relevant content regarding innovative techniques to minimize the use of force among police officers. The authors indicate that problem-based policing has some implication including criminal justice, social policy, and workplace reforms. This is greatly expanded through the roles of police officer, which demonstrates that dictatorial management is superseded.
Ingram, J. R., Paoline, E. A., & Terrill, W. (2013). A multilevel framework for understanding police culture: the role of the workgroup. Criminology, 51(2), 365-397.
Ingram, Paoline & Terrill, (2013) used established a paradigm in their inquiry to integrate multilevel technique to investigate police cultures. The inquiry identified workgroup as a crucial component that considerably impacts police occupational points of view. In particular, Ingram, Paoline & Terrill, (2013) proposed that the concept of police culture should be evaluated like criminology concepts including street culture and collective efficiency, whereby joint characteristics of police workgroups are taken into account. In this structure, the authors used survey information of 5 municipal police agency to assess the way in which strongly police in 187 workgroups shared practices and the level at which practices differed in the workgroups. In general, the findings showed that a workgroup acts as a feasible perspective for culture in police agencies. In that view, the study presented a way forward from simply recognizing police culture as individual-based or pure monopolistic event.
Lindblom, A., Kajalo, S., & Mitronen, L. (2015). Exploring the links between ethical leadership, customer orientation and employee outcomes in the context of retailing. Management Decision, 53(7), 1642-1658. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1704354642?accountid=45049
Lindblom, Kajalo & Mitronen, (2015) study focuses on investigating the relationship between retailers’ moral leadership, frontline worker customer orientation (CO) and frontline workers job fulfillment, stress associated with job and turnover issues. The authors developed a number of hypotheses to address the purpose of the study. In addition, they used the structural equation to test the hypotheses with a sample of 208 participants. The findings of the study showed that the views of frontline workers on retailers’ moral leadership were positively related to employee customer orientation. Moreover, employee customer orientation is strongly correlated to job fulfillment. Again, the study indicated that frontline workers job fulfillment is negatively associated with turnover.
Kalshoven, K., Den Hartog, D. N., & De Hoogh, A. H. (2013). Ethical leadership and follower helping and courtesy: Moral awareness and empathic concern as moderators. Applied Psychology, 62(2), 211-235.
Kalshoven, Den Hartog & De Hoogh, (2013) used a multi-level technique to investigate the moderating effect of two elements of ethical perspective regarding the association between ethical leadership and followers. This study used multi-source information from a sample of followers and leaders while controlling from the transformational leader. They discovered that shared views of moral understanding and empathy of team moderated that association between the follower’s courtesy and ethical leadership. Associations between individual and team views of ethical leadership were positive particularly when the moral understanding was low, but the association reduced with high moral understanding. The association between individual and team views of ethical leadership and courtesy was positive with higher empathetic concern while the relationship reduced with low empathetic concern. For that reason, Kalshoven, Den Hartog & D...