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Annotated Bibliography
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Annotated Bibliography on the Effects of Tourism in Hawaii (Annotated Bibliography Sample)

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Annotated Bibliography on the Effects of Tourism in Hawaii

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Annotated Bibliography on the Effects of Tourism in Hawaii
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Blackford, M. G., 2001, Fragile paradise: the impact of tourism on Maui, 1959-2000, Lawrence, University Press of Kansas.
Blackford’s book offers crucial insights into the state of tourism and the consequences it has had on the pristine island of Hawaii. Appropriately titled to underscore the precariousness of the once serene state, the book draws the attention of the reader to the once quiet habitat that is now buzzing with a sea of humanity it cannot serve. With the coming of commercial jets to the island and ensuing technological advancement, the four islands that make up the state have experienced tremendous development. First, the beautiful beaches and sugar plantations with slightly over 37,000 residents and tourists half that number in the 1950s has rapidly transformed within the last 50 years. The 727 square miles now hosts twice the number of residents plus more than 2 million annual visitors. Consequently, the beautiful beaches and plantations have been replaced with a sea of humanity and vehicles that barely move because of traffic jam. Moreover, increase of number of settlements has stretched the area beyond its limits and now areas largely inhabited by native people choke with sewage. The clustering of town and rural settlements has bred a crisis of overpopulation that now threatens the very existence of the island.
Furthermore, the book details the rapid explosion of the tourism industry and the effect it has had on the island with a special focus on Maui as it is the tourism headquarters of the state. The economic question particularly, as presented by Blackford, is a complex one. While most of those in the hotel and entertainment sector especially ethnic Filipinos and urbane native Hawaiian, the boom has been a blessing. For most of the native people, the growth has brought about pain. Most personal accounts of people as captured in the book paint a gloomy picture of livelihood interference and the resultant traffic jam and sex commercialization that have become the hallmark of the new dispensation. The change in land use policy for instance has disconnected many from something they hold important in their lives. Access to water has become harder despite being surrounded by water. Additionally, electricity generation has come at a great environmental cause. The imminent completion of the Kahului Airport has contributed to further environmental degradation. Moreover, for most Hawaiians who feel the new development has sidelined them, the massive infrastructural development is likely to push them further to the periphery.
Prominently, Blackford’s book is relevant for various reasons important being its balanced approach to the subject. The book traces the history of the island and conjures an image of beauty and innocence. This helps the reader to link the past, present and future and feel how the changing dynamics have affected the people. Importantly too, Blackford has been able to capture the concrete statistics without letting emotions get into the way as well as to integrate the emotions without letting data get into the way. Ultimately, this breathes life into the book and set it apart as an objective and balanced insight into the effects of tourism in Hawaii.
Collins, L. D., & Isaki, B., 2016, Tourism impacts West Maui. Lahaina, Hawai'I, North Beach-West Maui Benefit Fund.
Amid all the glamour of Hawaii that has been the Island such a legendary destination for tourists; a lot is lost about how the state came to be. The hundreds of years before American capitalism visited the place, locals lived in a communal paradise where the economy and land were communal. A strong sense of togetherness bounded the people and beneath the physical beauty laid a deeper attractiveness. However, with the advent of American capitalism, the vast swathes of land that the natives had occupied since earliest memories were dispossessed from them as individual land ownership became a norm. Before the natives could realize, their land was in the hands of foreigners and they could do nothing about it. Quickly forward to the present, the cruel history has been replaced with a thin veneer of a happy place where pleasure-seekers go to find happiness. The economy has expanded while pushing the natives further away from the benefits. Dispossessed of their land and means of economic production, most of what the world view as a booming industrial tourism is a symbol of historical injustice to many native Hawaiians.
Probably because of the legal training and social justice activism background of the writer, the book might come across as somewhat irrelevant to the effects of tourism in Hawaii. However, it is its radical and refreshing tone that makes it particularly important in understanding the natives’ feelings and perceptions towards tourism in the state. Each of the nine essays in the book revolves around the issue of land and historical injustice. To many native Hawaiians, the sight of tourist hotels and resorts is a constant reminder of the injustice that was visited on them by foreigners who took over their land. To these natives, especially a majority of them who are outside the tourism industry, a reversion to their old serene life would be their favorable outcome. The modern property rights regime poses an inherent contradiction to the familiar arable and communal private ownership that characterized their lives. To the older people especially, they cannot comprehend why certain areas are restricted for tourists and visitors to their land are treated with more dignity than the local people.
In Collins and Isaki’s book, tourism is a bitter pill to swallow for many especially as it relates to land. The book details account of people who bemoan the loss of the natural and rich environment that was their country. In West Maui for instance, the establishment of irrigation schemes diverted water from the agricultural practices that depended on it downstream. This had a negative impact on their economic life as it affected sugarcane production, their economic mainstay. The irrigation pads pose a health risk too as they provided breeding areas for mosquitoes and led to malaria infection. The book’s radical tone makes it relevant to the topic as it captures the feelings of most native Hawaiians.
Darowski, Lukasz, Strilchuk, Jordan, Sorochuk, Jason, Provost, Casey, 2007, ‘Negative Impact of Tourism on Hawaii Natives and Environment’, Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 1.10.
The article starts by noting the tremendous growth in tourism in Hawaii as a result of technology that has made it tremendously easy to travel far with ease in additional to traditional factors such as the warm climate and rich diversity that the Island offers. The industry has therefore bloomed into a billion dollar sector generating more than 10 billion annually. The income has gone into creating employment as well as generating the much needed revenue for government as well as income for the people. However, the economic benefits have been overshadowed by potential deleterious effects on Hawaii natives and the environment. The growth of the tourism industry has necessitated an increase of infrastructure which has inevitably come at the expense of the environment. The article argues that the doubling of the number of hotels rooms to more than 130,000 in the space of a decade from 1985 came at the expense of the rich fauna and flora that characterize the island. Additionally, the new development has brought about an increase in demand for energy again with potential environmental degradation.
The article cites a report showing that more than half of the flora and fauna is now endangered and may disappear from the island in the next few decades. This will be a huge blow to Hawaii given that its major attraction is the rich plant and animal diversity. With the upset of the ecosystem, lives will be put at risk. Another potential threat is the erosion of the rich Hawaiian culture. The article cites a report putting stating that practically all tourist resorts in the island are built on a culturally important site. Consequently, the traditional livelihoods of local people have been upset with cultural anthropologists arguing that the development could result into reduced meaning of life for the natives. Coupled with the increasing prostitution and the growth of sex tourism, Hawaii’s culture hangs precariously between survival and extinction.
The article is very relevant and useful as it captures the gist of the non-economic problems that Hawaii faces because of tourism. The writers combine an environmental and anthropological perspective to arrive at the credible conclusion that the current tourism trajectory in the island is unsustainable. Moreover, the article offers logical recommendations the most important ones being eco-tourism and increased protection for cultural heritage and sites. Importantly, the writers call for a unified approach bringing together the government, tourism stakeholders, and local communities to address environmental and cultural issues. A minor blip in the article is that it does not give the name or references where it derives certain information. For instance, the writers would have amplified their point regarding potential extinction of certain animal and plant species had they cited readily available evidence from UNEP and UNESCO. Despite the oversight, the specific points made are clear and uncontestable. The article is therefore relevant and appropriate in the study of effects of tourism in Hawaii.
Shahzalal, Md, 2016, ‘Positive and Negative Impacts of Tourism on Culture: A Critical Review of Examples from the Contemporary Literature’, Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Sports, vol. 20,...
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