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5 pages/≈1375 words
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MLA
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History
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Annotated Bibliography
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English (U.S.)
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Topic:

A Biography Of Xiaoping Deng Writing Assignment (Annotated Bibliography Sample)

Instructions:

A biography of xiao ping den, a chinese revolutionary.

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Content:

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A BIOGRAPHY OF XIAOPING DENG
Introduction
Xiaoping Deng was born in 22nd of August 1904 in Guanglan from a family of seven. He was a Chinese revolutionary. He rose through political ranks and became a great communist leader between 1970 and 1997. Deng’s regime was marked with the massacre of demonstrators in 1989 at the square of Tiananmen which gave him criticism all over the world. Xiaoping Deng participated in almost all the China’s aspect of political, economic and social ways of life and he managed to bring back the domestic stability and economic growth in the country and was responsible for the opening of China to the global market and its economic reforms. He was also regarded as the paramount leader of the China by the public. Deng resigned in 1989 from his post, resigned from politics in 1992 and later in 1997; he passed away.
Early Life
Xiaoping Deng was born August 22nd, 1904 Guanglan, Sichuan province, China. His father, Deng Wenming was a middle-level landowner who also had other three sons and three daughters. His mother died when he was in his early ages. At the age of 15, Deng graduated from school, and they traveled to France to a work study. This is where Deng studied and worked in most of the 1920s and is where he was convinced of Marxism-Leninism. In 1923, Deng joined the Communist party while still in high school. He traveled to France then to Moscow and later in 1927; he returned to his home country.
Deng married his first wife who died at an early age of 24 left him with their younger daughter who also died later. He remarried, but the wife also left when he was attacked by politically in 1933. Deng later married again, and they had five children with his third wife.
Political life
Just as mentioned above, Xiaoping Deng was a revolutionist. He joined China’s communist revolution as a political and military organizer who was led by Zedong Mao. This is where Deng got his first experience when Chinese communist escaped the capture by the Chinese army.
In 1937 when there was a war against Japan, Xiaoping Deng was the educational leader of Chinese Revolutionary Army. During this period, Deng made the Army grow much larger than before up to 1949. Even though Xiaoping was much appreciated for his organizational skills which developed the Army and led to victory, later in the 1960s the leader that is Zedong Mao lost interest in him, he was also forced to move with his family in a rural province where he underwent re-education. This was from a fall to him who has risen to power.
Later in 1973, Deng’s organizational skills were once again much needed in China, and he was called back and reinstated. He again carried reorganization of the government. He was later removed again by a gang of four led by Mao’s wife after the death of Zhou Enlai his friend and one who influenced his study of Marxism as well as one who reinstated him. The gang shows him as their greatest challenge. The gang was later removed from power in 1976 after the death of Mao, and this is where Xiaoping made a political comeback. His position as the vice chairman of the central committee and vice-chairman of the military commission was restored. He then instituted new economic policies for China which was meant to open up China for international trade and investment. Deng also made a peace treaty with Japan, and it is under his political power that the United States officially recognized China.
Economic Reform in China
Deng made great changes in the economy of China during his reign. Even though he was not the owner of the original ideas as some of the ideas like the four modernizations i.e. military, agriculture, science and technology and industry originated from his friend and classmate premier Zhou, he provided the backup and political support to allow the reforms. He also introduced ‘one child per couple’ policy which was meant to reduce the increasing China’s population. This was because of the 1982 population census which revealed an extraordinary growth which was already more than one billion. His reforms included centralized management of the macro-economy by technically skilled people. This was in contrast to his predecessor’s way of constructing the economy.
Xiaoping also encouraged the export-led growth in China. Most provinces and municipalities were allowed to invest their capital in industries that they prefer and the profits were being reinvested again. These reforms improved labor productivity, increase in agricultural/ rural output, and there was as well increase in industrialization due to domestic consumption. Deng was later reelected in 1987 as the chairman of the central military commission, a post that he resigned two years later.
Even though the reforms or policies improved the quality of life of almost everyone, there was a huge inequality gap which developed between the classes.
Deng’s Role in Tiananmen Square Massacre
In 1989, there was a series of protest in the Republic of China due to the death of Hu Yaobang who was also a reformist. The demonstration continued for weeks, and some of the government activities were paralyzed/ shut down, this was happening when Gorbachev Mikhail, a Soviet premier visited China. This made Deng support the removal of the demonstrators from the square by force using the military. Many protesters died, and many were as well injured. Though he never supported it closely, some of his allies referred it as a collective decision made by the party leadership, but some also supported the demonstration but no...
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