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Article Critique
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Roles Of Organizational And Environmental Characteristics Of SMEs (Article Critique Sample)


Article critique of "“What are the roles of organizational, managerial and environmental characteristics of SMEs in the adoption of the social media tools?"


Article critique
Article Critique
Wamba & Carter (2014) conduct a study that seeks to answer the question “What are the roles of organizational, managerial and environmental characteristics of SMEs in the adoption of the social media tools?” The authors argue that the growth in social media sites such as Facebook has led to the emergence of social commerce. These tools offer organizations opportunities to improve their customer experiences, enhance communication with the various stakeholders, and provide a basis for innovation. However, most of the research on social media use related to large organizations, and there is limited literature social media and SME’s. Therefore, the purpose of the research is to investigate the role of managerial, environmental, and organizational characteristics on the adoption Facebook Events Page as the social media tool (SMT).
From the research question, it is possible to identify the variables: adoption of SMT (Facebook Events Page) is the dependent while organizational, managerial, and environmental characteristics are the independent variables. The authors have developed seven hypothesis (provided in the appendix), as well as providing a conceptual model which is the basis of the research. In this model, they expand on the three SME characteristics that influence the adoption of SMT: organizational relate to innovativeness and size, managerial concern the age, gender, and education, and the geographic location represents the environmental characteristic. The industry sector is the control variable, and this is because there exists a link between SMT use and adoption and the industry. The authors fail to provide a comprehensive literature review on the adoption of SMT or the diffusion of innovations. Coughlan, Cronin, & Ryan (2007) point out that the literature review should identify gaps and give suggestions on how to fill them, and this research fails in this respect.
The study’s dependent variable was the adoption of SMT represented by the industry sector. The participants were required to respond to a four-question scale to determine whether their firms were adopters or nonadopters of the Facebook Events Page. From the responses, the authors categorized the firms into two: adopters and non-adopters. As a result, this study involves a binary response variable (designates any of the two outcomes; dead or alive)
The independent variables were organizational, manager, and environmental characteristics. Previous studies have identified firm innovativeness and size as the key organizational characteristics that will determine whether an innovation will be adopted or not. Innovativeness was determined using the same four-tool scale. However, the article fails in defining the measure for firm size, either revenue or profit. The authors argue that the age, gender, and education of the manager determines whether a firm will embrace a given innovation faster or lag behind. The online survey required the respondent to indicate their gender, age, and the highest educational qualification. Geographical location is the environmental characteristics that impacts on the adoption of SMT and the respondents were required to indicate whether it is a metropolitan or non-metropolitan area.
The method and the design of the study in regards to the research design, the tool of data collection, and the data analysis technique are appropriate. The study adopts a survey methodology, and it is appropriate because it will allow the researchers to collect data from a large sample. Also, it is suitable for measuring attitudes and developing scales and testing the hypothesis. In collecting the data, the authors used the services of a panel and data collection services company which maintains a database of B2B small business managers in the U.K, Australia, the U.S, and India. They used random sampling to administer the questionnaire to 13,134 small business panel members, and it is an appropriate technique when there is an electronic database and does not exclude any person from being selected. Data collection was through an online survey, an appropriate approach because the respondents are in different countries it would allow for assessment of the attitudes as firms step up the adoption of the Facebook Events Page tool by SME's. The authors undertake validity testing of this instrument, and it addresses all the pertinent issues in respect of the dependent variable (Heale & Twycross, 2015, p.66).
. Hierarchical logistic regression was the data analysis method, and it is appropriate in this study. Wong & Mason (1985, p. 513) point out that the hierarchical logistic regression is appropriate for analyzing “data with a group structure and a binary response variable.” Group structure means that there are smaller observations embedded within the context of a large/macro observation. In this case, firm innovativeness and size are embedded within the larger organizational characteristics and are allowed to vary depending on the context. The response variable in the study is binary because it designates one of the two possible outcomes, either an adopter or nonadopter. Therefore, the method of data analysis is appropriate for testing the seven hypothesis.
The study did not meet all the ethical consideration of protection of confidentiality. The authors fully informed the participants about the nature of the research. The SME managers received an invitation to participate, and a week later, ...
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