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Neomercantilism, Liberalism, Historical Materialism, and Economic Constructivism (Book Review Sample)

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BOOK SUMMARY
Cohn, T. H. (2005). Global Political Economy: Theory and Practice. Longman Publishing Group.

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SUMMARY
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Chapter 3
Neomercantilism
Neomercantilism is an economic system that promotes exporting, restricts imports, regulates capital movements, and integrates monetary control into the national government's hands. The neo-mercantilist strategies aim to boost the number of forex assets in the economy, making fiscal and monetary policy more successful. Neo-mercantilism is regarded as the ancient tradition of thinking in modern economic theory (IPE). It is based on mercantilism, a pre-colonial philosophy, which has risen to prominence since the Industrial Age. It is often called the IPE equivalent of realism that all hold that authority is fundamental to foreign affairs. This framework is often synonymous with corporatism, especially in the 1970s, where all were seen as elements of the functional structure and policy objectives.
Contrasting International Relations and Political Economy: The Trade-Offs Between Security and Wealth
The international political economy is an area of study which shows the relation between economic and political powers. Human welfare has always been at its core and might appeal to state policies and business agendas in various countries and regions. Despite this, significant interventions in the area have always concentrated mostly on the foreign system viewpoint. A consequence of this was the relative disregard of non-elites and the all-too-often inadequate acknowledgment of ordinary people. Although States remain key to global affairs, they have increasingly stepped up their ties with multinational firms and increased their global institutions' involvement. Generally, these developments in the environment have contributed to some reconsideration about how we perceive and place people as players in the international economic system. For this reason, many researchers today choose to use the word 'geopolitical economic system' (GPE) rather than the more conventional term 'international politics and economics' (IPE). While both words are sometimes used synonymously, 'global' is significant since it implies a broader scope of politics and economics beyond ties amongst nations.
Basic Tenets of Neomercantilism
Neomercantilism, as we use the expression, is a kind of fiscal conservatism. The market is not rejected. Alternatively, it attempts to defend the public good, precisely the government's military and political status, by manipulating the economy's domestic and international operations.  Its goal is to transform economies following existing plans or, preventing that, to ignore productivity and narrow revenue-based market metrics favoring all those that seem to promote national influence. Towards this result, the neo-mercantile states aim to dominate the "dominant position" of the market, the highest and most critical needs, by wholly-owned or governmental companies acting as representatives of the government. States are trying to ensure that large companies' corporate priorities intertwine tightly with federal agendas while achieving higher financial development and productivity gains by publicly listed companies on the globalized market.  The state increases its control while companies gain government monopoly or oligopolistic privileges, guaranteeing their capacity to collect rents.
Neomercantilism is premised on a far older political ideology of mercantilism, aiming to maximize its economy by controlled trading. Mercantilism benefited from a profound misconception regarding ideas such as financies and business; in the same way, neo-mercantilism does not comprehend the universe as it currently happens. This paper outlines a fundamental flaw in the neo-mercantilistic way of thinking, especially that industry can be conceived as dominant across national borders. Any neo-mercantilistic leaderboard can be built on those compartmentalized state titles.
The Mercantilists
Mercantilism is capitalist fascism designed to create a rich and robust economy. Adam Smith invented the phrase "mercantile regime" to characterize the political-economic model that empowered the nation by regulating trade and promoting export industries. This model governed West European economic philosophy and strategies from the 16th to the early 18th century. The aim of such policy initiatives was, presumably, to establish a beneficial trade balance that would attract precious metals to the nation and also sustain local jobs. Compared to the stoics' agricultural regime or the laisse faire of the 19th and early 20th centuries, the mercantilist model represented traders' and manufacturers' needs, such as the English East India Business. Their practices were guarded or promoted by the government.
The compelling and fundamental economic reason for mercantilism in the 16th century was the unification of the medieval era geostrategic control centers by massive, mighty world powers. Numerous different causes leading to this included the creation of colonial powers beyond Europe; the rise in Western Europe exchange and manufacturing compared to agricultural production; the increase in the scale and extent of trade exchange; and the growth in the usage of metallic financial structures,  especially silver and gold, compared to exchanging goods and services deals.  In the mercantile age, the trade dispute amongst states was indeed quite intense and widespread than at any historical moment. The military forces and ships' key characters were no longer provisional units to deal with a specific challenge or mission but comprehensive specialized units. Every state's principal financial goal was to control an enormous supply of rigid currencies to finance armed forces to protect its people from other nations its own regional extension.
Some of the mercantilist strategies are the alliance's product amongst the states' administrations and the respective mercantilist groups. In return for contributing tariffs and duties to finance the state military, the mercantilist groups forced policymakers to adopt measures to safeguard their financial values and beliefs against international competitiveness.  These strategies have taken several shapes. States could offer new industry resources, exclude manufacturing technologies from union regulations and taxation, create monopolies on regional and foreign markets, and award trophies and benefits to active manufacturers. In international relations, the state helped local production by enforcing taxes, restrictions, and bans on imports of products that interfered with regional producers.  Government agencies also banned the exporting machinery and capital investments and the relocation of qualified workers, which would enable foreign nations and the overseas territories of the homeland to remain competitive in the manufacturing of industrial products. Around the same period, negotiators urged multinational producers to migrate to diplomatic countries of their own.
Neomercantilism and the Industrial Revolution
Neomercantilism is the IPE equivalent to rationalism, the traditional form of thinking in foreign affairs. Neomercantilists are involved in the competition between states over natural wealth and the fiscal policies that the big nations employ to advance their strategic interests. Mercantilism was a pre-modern ideology. The Industrial Age brought fresh momentum to neo-mercantilists that saw the industrial revolution as central to state military superiority, defense, and commercial self Neomercantilists are much more likely than liberalism to depict the global power as promoting their strategic interests instead of the betterment of society. The obsession of the neo-mercantilists with dominance and comparative progress stresses the redistributive problems amongst the most dominant states. Chinese and Russian resources neo-mercantilism has often been inspired by efforts to fight United States dominance. The concern of the neo-mercantilists with national interests makes them deeply cynical regarding the involvement of foreign institutions.
Neomercantilism after World War 2
Protectionism by monetary exploitation is a new invention, and hardly any mercantile nation-state might have dreamed of doing it. The industrial community no longer attaches its numerous funds to every product. Alternatively, civilized society is using rival fiat financial instruments. In particular, new currencies are not restricted to the sum which can be made. Consequently, every currency float is compared to each other and can be exploited by integrating the different financial institutions' regulations. Since the end of the Second World War, the U.S. dollar has always been the world's reserve currency. The closure of President Nixon's gold window in 1971 disentangled the gold and the dollar. Since then, United States Reserve Bank has been able to make currencies from nothing practically. Unlike the previous currencies, mechanical reproduction of financies is no longer necessary; currencies are made with only a few keyboard strokes. Consequently, with almost no cost of manufacturing, any volume of cash may be produced or eliminated. This financial structure has been implemented by any nation which can implement it. Under this foreign framework, governments are willing to exploit their resources to accomplish their mercantile strategic goals. The criterion to which the global fiat scheme can be compared is a globally standardized currency. The United States does not observe the trading balance among its different states as it recognizes that common financies can flow through the country while the economy reacts to shifts in market forces. Comparably, if regional dip...

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