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13 pages/≈7150 words
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Biological & Biomedical Sciences
English (U.S.)
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Mutulism Biological & Biomedical Sciences Coursework (Coursework Sample)


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Topic : Mutualism
Mutualism is a relationship in which two organism of different species are mutually benefited by each other , one organism is served by the other's action. The introduction about the mutualism was firstly given by the Pierre-Joseph van beneden (Van, 1876). Mutualism is the minor type of symbiosis which cover all relationships like mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism. Many examples of the mutualism in animals ,plants and insects like bumblebee relationship with flowers, yucca moth relation, fig wasp , aphid and ants relation, sea anemones and clown fish, spider crab and algae, ants and fungus, prot1mites and common example in the human and plants relation in which exchange of the reservoir: energy by the photosynthetic process (c) protection against enemies and some other environmental changes, (d) transportation from one place to another which is suitable for the organisms. Nutritional and energy occur in symbiotic mutualism, sometimes protection and transportation. Nonsymbiotic mutualism cover all above four.
1. Sybiotic mutualism
Many symbiotic relationships involve transfer of energy from one partner to other for example gut microbes and get many benefits by exchange of food .
Termites and protozoa relationship
Termites can live on their own food material but they cannot digest that food without the protozoa bacteria , the study about the intestinal protozoa and termites conducted by Imm's. Termites are famous for wood enemies but they cannot digest the wood material without the protozoa , protozoa help termites to digest the cellulose material within the wood . In the newly hatched termites the protozoa shifted from older termites by feeding on the feces of older termites which contain protozoa . Breakdown of the cellulose in wood and change into sugar that can be easily fed by the termites , here both individuals are get benefits protozoa by receiving food and shelter and termites are able to digest the wood and get food.

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