Law and Ethics (Coursework Sample)
You are a paramedic arriving at an emergency scene. A group of scouts have entered a cave that is now filling with water. They were led into the cave by a rather large scoutmaster. Unfortunately, while leading them out of the cave, the scoutmaster somehow managed to get stuck in a narrow opening with only his head and shoulders protruding out. With his upper torso stuck outside the cave, it appears the scoutmaster will survive, but all the boys below will drown if they cannot escape. After you have checked all possible escape routes and have attempted to extricate the scoutmaster, it becomes clear that the only way to save the boys is to sacrifice the scoutmaster and remove him from the hole so the rest of the scouts can escape. What is the correct action for this case? Justify your decision using each of the following: ???Duty-oriented reasoning (1 to 2 Paragraphs) ???Consequence-oriented reasoning (1 to 2 Paragraphs) ???Virtue-ethics reasoning (1 to 2 Paragraphs) Based on your analysis, consider what might be the ultimate dilemma of ethics and include your answer to each of the following questions: ???What happens when people apply differential standards (all valid) to health care decisions? Explain with supporting examples. (2 to 3 Paragraphs) ???How does an individual determine who is ultimately right when different decisions are reached? (2 to 3 Paragraphs)source..
LAW AND ETHICS
There is a general concern among most healthcare employees concerning the potential risks wrought about by the exposure to the situations they encounter in their clinical practices. Actually, in the United States, there is a litigation crisis as evidences by the increase in civil suits based on ethical malpractices and this in itself poses a real threat on the participants within the health care delivery system (Jost,&Wuerth,2011)..
From the duty oriented reasoning perspective that largely borrows from Immanuel Kant’s moral theory, the main guiding principle in the case is the intention. Notably, the perspective mainly relies on those universal principles that guide what kind of action one is required to take ion particular circumstances. In summary, according to the perspective, the ramifications of the particular action taken are not particularly important compared to the principle moral law that necessitates the said action. Simply put, the existence of one’s duty is the determining factor of the morality behind the particular action. For instance, each individual has a moral duty to maintain honesty irrespective of the fact that honesty has certain negative outcomes. Therefore, the use of lies to save a single life is morally decadent because of the obligation to remain honest.
In the scenario outlined, the starting point is to ascertain the moral obligation. Being a paramedic, one is bestowed with certain implied obligations and duties which are to help those in need. In addition, there is a social -political obligation to ensure that the most vulnerable members of society are protected. Therefore, considering the exigency of the matter, it is important to outline the priorities before taking any action. Admittedly, the overriding duty in the case will be centred on protecting the vulnerable lives: save the children. Admittedly, children are generally considered to be among the most vulnerable society members and as such any assistance accorded to them has much higher moral suasion in fulfilling the duty. Admittedly, this will demand that the scoutmaster be sacrificed for the general good of the vulnerable members in the team. However, the sacrifice is entirely based on the moral law in which the innocent victims have to be protected. Consequently, by sacrificing the scoutmaster, it is generally presumed that the action is morally acceptable in light of the circumstances in play (Fremgen, 2009)...
According to the consequences-oriented reasoning, the guiding principle is to employ a cost/benefit analysis as the modality of benefitting most people as possible. In this regard, the reasoning here is that the results achieved are considered to be of much significance than the actions used. Simply put, this reasoning is anchored on the reasoning that it is the end that justifies the means. Therefore lying to save a life is justified by the final results. This reasoning ...
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