8 pages/≈2200 words
Stigmatization of People with Mental Illness (Coursework Sample)
mental illness is an issue that affects millions of people globally. The severity of psychological issues worldwide is based on the stigma associated with them. The unintended consequences of stigma arise from misinformation and a lack of enough public awareness programs. Additionally, the stereotypes associated with mental illnesses that prevent mentally challenged individuals from accessing amenities. source..
Stigmatization of People with Mental Illness Haredo Jimale St. Cloud State University PSY 401 –01 Field Experience Dr. Phil Godding Date Stigmatization of People with Mental Illness * Introduction to Stigmatization Mental illness is an issue that affects millions of people globally. According to Arboleda-Florez (2012), only diseases such as leprosy and tuberculosis significantly impact community health. The severity of psychological issues worldwide is based on the stigma associated with them. Corrigan (2016) showed that the unintended consequences of stigma arise from misinformation and a lack of enough public awareness programs. Additionally, Corrigan (2016) identified stereotypes associated with mental illnesses that prevent mentally challenged individuals from accessing amenities. Furthermore, there is ‘self-stigma,’ where the individual reacts to external prejudice that leads to alienation (Knaak et al.,2017). Therefore, there is a prevalent global issue regarding stigma; hence, this literature review will examine how stigmatization affects mentally ill individuals and how its various forms can be addressed. * Stigmatization of people with mental illness * Consequences of stigmatization of people with mental illness Stigmatization has adverse consequences for individuals with mental illness. According to Lyndon et al. (2019), one of the significant outcomes of stigma is the underutilization of psychological healthcare. Mann and Himelein (2004) agree that widespread stigmatization forms a barrier to treatment. Mann and Himelein’s (2004) study showed that attitudes towards treatment changed regarding gender and the type of disorder. Based on this, different mental illnesses face various challenges and responses for treatment. Furthermore, Knaak et al. (2017) postulated that stigmatization contributes to low peer support and esteem issues, especially among psychologically challenged medical practitioners. Baumann (2007) adds that these prejudices further contribute to underdiagnosis, undertreatment, and underestimation of the extensiveness of the disorders. Therefore, the significant consequences associated with mental illness stigma prevent patients from seeking care. * Impact of stigmatization on people suffering mental illness. Stigmatization of mentally incapacitated individuals has severe impacts not only on the individuals but the society at large. However, it is empirical to identify that the most impact is on the people with the disorders. Knaak et al. (2017) show that mental illness stigma affects these individuals’ behavior, work, and social lifestyles. On the other hand, the availability of stigma has created awareness, leading to campaigns and research to end it. For example, Corrigan and Wassel (2008) identified that the barriers associated with the stigma have led to public awareness that has developed new strategies to assist patients in getting treated. Such can be seen in the works of Alexander and Link (2009), who conducted studies to identify the measures people take to reduce stigmatization. Hence, despite mental stigmatization having adverse impacts, its availability has created room for research and programs to reduce it. * Theories on stigma for people with mental illness. Over the years, numerous theories have been intended to determine various aspects of all mental illness stigmatization. * Modified labeling theory According to Phelan et al. (2014), the modified labeling theory purports that stigma is formed around common beliefs in a culture. Through this, the mentally challenged individual faces rejection and is deemed of lesser value in their society. The theory mainly focuses on the consequences of stigmatization that contribute to the self-actualization of rejection (Phelan et al.,2014). The shared cultural beliefs, therefore, contribute to the status of the individual in society and can further their self-recognition (Lam et al.,2010). Also, based on this theory, the adverse outcomes can create a rift between the psychologically challenged individual and their surrounding environment. * Social-cognitive model, Similar to the modified labeling theory mentioned above, the social cognitive approach focuses on the environmental stigma’s role in influencing behavior. Catalano et al. (2021) postulate that mentally ill individuals tend to have societal stereotype influence their thinking and overall behavior. Catalano et al. (2021) argue that changes in behavior occur when individuals internalize the stigma and eventually believe in the stereotype. The social cognitive model’s impact surrounds various factors associated with expectations, reinforcement, reciprocal determinism, observational learning, and other behavioral capabilities (Whitely and Campbell, 2014). Through this, there is a bridge in the gap between personal will and social expectations that model their behavior based on stereotypes. * Stereotype content model, Unlike the models mentioned above, the stereotype content concept relies on the two-dimensional aspect of competence and “perceived warmth” (Fiske,2018). The approach identifies with the human stimuli significantly identifiable from other aspects of anatomy. Fiske (2018) argues that warmth is associated with sociability and trust, while competence is the intent of being capable of agentic. Through this, various communities and social classes can have the difference between the two. The nature of warmth and competence allows individuals to form a stigma. For example, in ambivert groups, people are perceived as warm and can feel sorry for an individual undergoing a mental breakdown (Fiske, 2018). Based on this, stigma is available at certain levels depending on the stereotype associated with the social environment. * Implicit stigma, Stull et al. (2017) argue that due to the complex social construct of people, some stigma is performed without consciousness, which is implicit. Sandhu et al. (2018) identify that implicit stigma are individualized beliefs that are not dependent on external stimuli. Due to this, implicit stigma is exhibited prominently even without other beliefs (Stull et al.,2017). Furthermore, the stigma is also expressed by other mentally challenged individuals with negative beliefs similar to their surroundings. Through this, they make stigma a complex ideology. Thus, stigma can be attributed to people with similar disorders harboring negative perceptions that will further the buildup of social separation of psychological illnesses. * Attribution theory. According to the Attribution Theory, Sattler et al. (2021) argue that people prefer to assign degrees of responsibility and control to things to comprehend better and explain the reasons behind other people’s conditions, behaviors, or related events and results. As a result, Arboleda-Florez (2012) shows that people are open to signals and signaling events that may cause them to have negative cognitive beliefs, emotional responses, and discriminating behaviors. The issue is that there is frequently no apparent cause of mental disease, which is problematic. Therefore, people may begin to blame the individual for their mental illness, which fuels the myth that those who have mental illness lack self-control and are incapable of taking care of themselves. Such causes a change of behavior toward mentally ill people. IV.Understanding stigmatization * Types of stigma and its impact on people with mental illness The three types of stigma include the public self and label avoidance. Public stigma develops when the mass community supports and acts on stigmatizing stereotypes about mental illness. Avoidance and retreat are the most upsetting types of prejudice (Lam et al.,2016). People in the general public will want to avoid them to avoid the dangers of interacting with mentally ill people. For example, when employers and landlords choose not to rent to or hire persons with mental illnesses, they engage in avoidance, which is incredibly harmful. These actions build up the stigma and create unconducive environments for self-identity. On the other hand, according to Corrigan (2016), when individuals internalize bias and discriminate against themselves, self-stigma results. The three As are sequential stages that describe self-stigma. Internalizing stigma can lower self-esteem and reduce self-efficacy on a cognitive and emotional level. The “why try” effect results from the three As behaviourally. Furthermore, Phelan et al. (2014) show that label avoidance is the third sort of stigma, which makes it difficult for people who require psychiatric care to access services. Associating with a mental health program is one way that people can publicly label themselves. To prevent labeling, some people choose not to seek out services that would be beneficial or stop using services after beginning them. V.Strategies to fight different stigmas for people with mental illness. a.Talk Openly About Mental Health. Stull et al. (2017) show that mental illness stigma is inspired implicitly. The unconscious perception is based on personalized thoughts that contribute to flawed ideologies. The thinking can be changed when people openly discuss matters concerning psychological turmoil. Arboleda-Florez (2012) also argues that the negative perspectives can be suppressed by offering alternative conversations that object to the portrayal of mental health as an outrageous concept. The talk can be achieved by engaging in activities and viewing accurate media to consolidate the ideas. * Educate Yourself and Others. Arboleda-Florez (2012) recognizes that education is the key to removing mental illness stigma. Good education strives to improve mental health understanding and overall mental health literacy by dispelling myths and inaccurate notions about the nature and prevalence of mental diseases. The main goals of literacy-based techniques are to increase understandin...
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