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Communications & Media
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Mass Media in Politics, CNN Effect, and Social Media as Catalyst of Arab Spring (Coursework Sample)


A‌‌‍‌‍‌‌‌‌‍‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍nswer the following Three questions 1. Carruthers (2011) writes: “political leaders generally take great pains to generate support for waging war, enlisting mass communications media to help bolster the case.” Is this necessarily true and, if so, how is such support generated? 2. In media studies, the “CNN Effect” is traced to the 1990s and the advent of 24-hour live global broadcast‌‌‍‌‍‌‌‌‌‍‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍ing. What is the “CNN effect” and is it still evident in 2020? If so, how has it changed since the 1990s? 3. Social media is consistently cited as a catalyst of the Arab Spring. Is this true? Was social media a: 1) necessary condition; 2) sufficient condition; 3) neither? References may be cited using either author-date format (which requires a list of references at the end) or by usi‌‌‍‌‍‌‌‌‌‍‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍ng footnotes.


Mass Communication Media, CNN Effect, Arab Spring
Question 1: Carruthers (2011) writes: “political leaders generally take great pains to generate support for waging war, enlisting mass communications media to help bolster the case.” Is this necessarily true and, if so, how is such support generated?
Carruthers (2011) highlights the roles of mass media in politics; Carruthers (2011) suggests that politicians use mass media in mobilizing the public to believe in their manifestoes and political ambitions. Besides, Carruthers (2000) illustrates the connections between mass media and politics by introducing the prospects of propaganda and communication via social media handles and media houses. Politicians use mass media in spreading propaganda against their opponents to create better opportunities for quenching leadership positions. Politics creates platforms for leaders to interact with both their opponents and their supporters. The rivalry and competition experienced in politics result in waging conflicts, which encourages the public to judge leaders and their roles in generating waging wars across various regions. Several alternatives can limit the reduction of blame games to politicians; however, the incorporation of mass communication media can simplify the achievement of a peaceful society and strong bonding between politicians and the public.. Politicians bear the pains of generating support for waging wars in various nations; nevertheless, social media's association in controlling and influencing the media can prevent the spread of such attitudes in the country.[Carruthers, Susan L. The media at war. Macmillan International Higher Education, 2011.]
Politicians indeed take great pains to generate support for waging wars, as stressed by Carruthers (2011). Besides, the writer's suggestions regarding the alternatives of reducing such struggles in the political arena are true following his preferences of engaging mass communication media. The history of media development exposes the mass communication medium to increased wars among media houses and the public. However, in this case, the history of media wars is significant for escalating the public's problems regarding the pressure and blames to politicians on rising wars in public.
Media are mostly owned and controlled by influential people in the society; thus, enlisting communication media to raise wars facing politicians in the contemporary society can help create awareness to the public regarding the sources, effects, and solutions of particular challenges. Politicians use social media in creating and analyzing war in the digital age. For instance, Carruthers (2011) exposes the engagement of Afghanistan and Iraq leaders in the definition of the digital revolution. Leaders in Iraq use social media to diversify freedom and educate the public on their rights; thus, promoting the digital revolution (Carruthers, 2011).
The influential media owner has connection s and proper networking with politicians; such people can approach the leaders and request interviews, which will help society understand the sources of conflicts linked to politicking activities. Powerful owners control the channeling of interviews to media houses. As a result, Carruthers's quote is true because media owners' fluence on politicians is high/. The truth about all accusations and scandals linked to politicians can be known and understood as either right or wrong through communications with the affected politicians. The group cannot interact directly with the public and be answerable to all the charges linked. However, the incorporation of mass communication media connects populations to their leaders easily through interviews.
The peace journalism training also impacts the views of the masses on political blames on elected leaders. The rivals between politicians can be sorted through mass communication media that offer peace journal training and development programs. The objectives of peace journalism training are to establish a remedy to propaganda-driven mainstream media. In this instance, Carruthers is right because the only way to know the truth is through communication. Mass communication media will help politicians gain pains caused by waging wars linked to their professions through the provision of alternatives to propaganda-driven topics.

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