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USA Global Involvement since the Spanish war to Present (Coursework Sample)


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USA Global Involvement since the Spanish war to Present.
At the time of the Spanish American war, the United States went from relative isolation to increased global involvement because of: 1. Cuban struggle for independence, 2. The Second World War. 3. USSR involvement in Vietnamese conflict. The consequences of the increased global involvement on the American society were 1. Increased industrialization in America. 2. Varying opinions and decreasing patriotism.
The desire by the USA to help Cuban rebels fight for their independence from Spain created a conflict of interest with Spain. Initially, the USA was keen on not interfering with external affairs involving other countries, especially from Europe. "In February 1895, the struggle for independence in Cuba began”1. The Spanish were very brutal in the means they used to crush the rebellion. The USA, as was its policy, thought of turning a blind eye on the situation in Cuba. However, when it learned of the atrocities committed by the Spaniards in the Cuban struggle for independence, the Americans felt remorse for the Cubans. The popular chorus among the USA populace was an intervention to the Cuban strife. The USA sent some of its warships to Cuba to protect USA citizens and their property from the civil unrest. "The motive for the USA’s intervention on the Cuban rebellion grew stronger following the unexplained sinking of USA ships at the port of Havana”.[William McKinley: The Acquisition of the Philippines. Retrieved from ] [Making of America. Retrieved from]
Due to the USA’s involvement in the Cuban uprising, Spain declared war on 24th April 1898 . The USA responded by declaring war on Spain on 25th April 1898. What followed was a one- sided war between the USA and Spain. Spain was not well prepared for the war and it lacked the resources to ship its troops overseas to the fight the USA army. A good example involves that of the USA navy of the invasion of the Spanish territory in the Philippines. "Under the leadership of Commo. George Dewey, the USA was able to take over Manila Bay in the Philippines after a few hours in May 1st 1898”. Spain lost the war and the USA took control of overseas territories such as Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines- formerly belonging to Spain. Spain reduced its involvement in international affairs. On the other hand, USA came out as a powerful country and its desire to acquire more overseas territories went a notch higher.[The Philippines. Retrieved from/acad/intrel/mkinly3.htm] [library of congress digital sources Retrieved from /library/libarch-digital.html]
The Second World War pushed the USA to be involved in global affairs despite the isolationist policy adopted between 1934 and 1939 . After the First World War, policy makers were divided between taking part in global affairs and staying in isolation. Isolationists did not want anything to do with the war in Europe while the interventionists wanted the USA to join its allies in fighting off the Germans and their allies5. In the meantime, USA neighbors, Canada, had declared war on Germany almost immediately after the war began. The USA congress was still divided on whether to join the war or stay away. "President Franklin D. Roosevelt urged the Americans to be democratic and supply, lease or loan war machinery to its allies involved in the war in Europe”. That decision marked the involvement of the USA in the WWII from the sidelines. USA supplied Britain with war equipment but not military personnel support.[Berlin 1945 Retrieved from /berlin.htm] [Roosevelt Corollarg Retrieved from /doc.php?flash=false&doc=56&page=transcript]
The sinking bombing of Pearl Harbor by Japanese military compelled the USA to join the war officially 7. Similar to any other powers during that time, Japan wanted to expand its territory into Asia. It wanted to invade Thailand, the Philippines, and Malay Peninsula. The only barrier between Japan and its ambitions was the USA. The USA was still in control of the Philippines and it had been preparing its military for possible aggression by the Japanese. Japan’s motive was further advanced when the USA decided to "cut off basic supplies from Hawaii to Japan”. The USA responded to the Pearl Harbor attack by sending its Air Force to Tokyo. Initially, Japan had thought that it was out of reach from allied forces aircraft due to the long distance over the sea. True to their estimation, 15 warplanes from USA’s fleet crashed before they could get to china for refueling. USA’s involvement in the war stopped Japan’s ambitions to take over Australia.[Japanese view of Pearl Harbor. Retrieved from ]
The supremacy battles between the USA and USSR during the cold war led to the USA’s involvement in the Vietnamese war. After chasing the Japanese out of Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh formed the League of Vietnam with the support of China and USSR . The main purpose of the Viet Minh was to fight off possible Japanese aggression and the French. The French moved to the south of Vietnam and set up its leader, Bao, against the North in a bid to reclaim it. They were defeated and had to flee to Europe. The former Vietnam was now split into North Vietnam and South Vietnam. "The North was a communist republic allied to China and USSR, while the south went Capitalist and signed a protection treaty with the USA”8. The USA provided South Vietnam with technical military support and sophisticated weapons.[France surrenders. Retrieved from /francesurrenders.htm]
When John F. Kennedy sent officials to assess the rebel situation in South Vietnam, the team recommended a buildup of the American military to confront the rebel group, Viet Cong. After Kennedy’s assassination, Lyndon Johnson took over the presidency. In 1965, Johnson made the decision to send combat forces to South Vietnam when it emerged that the communist rebels could topple the government. Johnson sent more reinforcements to South Vietnam in 1965 and 1966. Other countries such as New Zealand, Australia and Thailand also sent troops albeit in smaller numbers. Warring parties declared free fire zones that were supposed to be evacuated by all civilians. The USA used B- 52 aircraft to bomb the regions, making them inhabitable in the process. With the support of China and USSR, North Vietnam forces and the Southern Rebels marched on. After much fighting, the North and South came to a peace agreement in 1975. USA had to withdraw troops due to public outcry and widespread military frustration. Both countries were unified in 1976 to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.[John F.Kennedy Inaugural Address. Retrieved from] [Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Retrieved from]
America’s involvement in global affairs led to increased industrialization in the country. Involvement in global affairs opened new opportunities for America. Formerly, the country was mainly agricultural and less manufacturing. However, with involvement in global affairs, came the opportunities to manufacture goods for the increased market. The Chinese Exclusion Act opened up China for any worthy contestant. The USA was willing to take advantage of China’s large population and ready market for its goods. In turn, the number of industries back home grew tremendously. The USA started refining oil and exporting it to Japan and China. Pearl Harbor was an integral part in the trade between the USA and Asia. The USA had managed to take away the territory from the Spanish after beating them in the Spanish- American war.[The Social Gospel Retrieved from] [Chinese Exclusion Act retrieved from /acad/intrel/chinex.htm]
Industrialization was both a blessing and a curse to the American people. The concept changed the social setting of the American society. "The purchasing power of a man determined his health and the wellbeing of his family”11. Thanks to the immense wealth accumulated by industrial countries, laborers could now afford commodities that were initially the preserve of the rich. Americans began to leave their villages and farms in search of better employment opportunities in the cities where the industries were in plenty. However, America’s involvement in the Vietnamese war dealt a blow to the country’s industrial fabric 11. Suddenly, the authorities realized that the number of industries that could produce arms for use in Vietnam were very minimal. The government converted most food industries into arms industries. Before long, the country had to institute food rations among its populace. America’s involvement in global affairs had led to food rationing and the consequent suffering of the American society.
America’s involvement in global affairs created a sharp division between those supporting the move and those that were opposed to it. America’s involvem...
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