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Understanding the Foundation Biology (Coursework Sample)


research paper on the topic foundation biology


The city and state
Foundation Biology
Assessment 1.2
Viruses come in a fantastic variety of sizes and shape. Also, the virus comprises both the nucleic acid and the protein layer that come in a variety of arrangement. Whereas the nucleic acid plays vital role in making up the genetic information as either DNA or RNA, the capsid (the protein layer) protects the genetic information to enable it to transform into its infective form known as the virion. Additionally, some viruses have an additional viral envelop that is made of a lipid bilayer, with the envelope exhibiting a fringe of glycoprotein knobs or spikes referred to as the peplomers (Horne 2014, p. 73).
Figure 1: Structure of an Enveloped Virus (Horne 2014, p. 75).
Unfortunately, the virus is not classified among the five Kingdoms classification model since it lacks the living cells.
Assessment 2.1
* Despite the different forms of carbohydrates, all the macromolecule is made of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, with the arrangements of the components forming the different types of sugars (Pross 2016, p. 4).
* Besides providing the body with the essential energy, carbohydrates help in preserving the muscles. Additionally starch plays a crucial role in promoting digestive health.
* Glucose, for instance, comprises of six carbon, twelve hydrogen, and six oxygen atoms (Pross 2016, p. 5).
* Whereas all lipids comprise hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, some of them also contain phosphorus and nitrogen (Pross 2016, p. 5).
* The lipids play many roles in enhancing the much-desirable sustainable existence. Among the functions of fat, include storing the energy for the basic body functioning, acting as the components of the cell membrane as well as acting as the chemical messengers within the body.
* Fats, for example, are a triglyceride formed following the reaction between the fatty acids and glycerol.
Figure 2: structure of the Fat (Pross 2016, p. 8)
Interestingly, the fats can be either solid or liquid at room temperature based on their composition and structure.
* Protein is made of four elements, including nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. The four elements combine to form the amino acids that act as the basic units of the proteins. However, two forms of amino acids: cysteine and methionine consist of the additional sulfur element (Pross 2016, p. 9).
* Besides the significance of the proteins to build the muscle tissues, the macronutrient helps create the antibodies that enable the immune system protects the body from undesirable diseases.
* The cysteine is an example of the amino acid that contains the sulfur element.
Figure 3: Cysteine with the sulfur component (Pross 2016, p. 11)

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