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Topic:

The Steps And Procedures Of Writing A Research Proposal (Coursework Sample)

Instructions:

instruct an undergraduate student on the steps and procedures of writing a research proposal.

source..
Content:
1. STRUCTURE OF RESEARCH PROPOSAL
Title page to include:
Title
- A concise statement of the main topic and should identify the variables.
- Should be a reflection of the contents of the document.
- Fully explanatory when standing alone.
- Should not contain redundancies such as ‘a study of…..or ‘an investigation of……
- Abbreviations should not appear in the title.
- Scientific names should be in italics.
- Should contain 12 to 15 words.
- A good title should display understanding of the research problem.
Author’s name and affiliation
- Avoid use of words like ‘By’….. ‘from”…..
- Preferred order of names- start with 1st, middle followed by last name.
- Full names should be used, initials should be avoided.
- Titles like Dr. should not appear in the names.
Affiliation should be well illustrated i.e. ‘A proposal/ research project submitted to the Department of Information Technology ………in the School of…………. in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of …….. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology.’
The year should follow at the bottom of the caption.
Note:
For proposals and final report (spiral bound) the cover page should include the title, author and affiliation (all on one page) and centered.
Declaration – Should include both the candidate’s and the supervisor’s declaration and duly signed.
This proposal/research project is my original work and has not been presented for a degree in any other University
…………………. …………………
Signature Date
This proposal/research project has been submitted for examination with my approval as University Supervisor
……………… ……………….
Signature Date
Note: Paginate using roman numbers starting with the declaration page.
Abstract- This is a brief statement of the problem, objectives of the study, target population, sampling technique and sample size, instruments, data collection, data processing and analysis, key findings and major recommendations.
Should not exceed 1000 words.
Table of contents – The rubric should be in title case and single spaced.
- The chapter titles should be in caps and bold.
- The subheadings should follow each chapter title and should be in title case.
- Subheading of rows should be – Chapters & Pages indicated once at the top of each column e.g.,
CHAPTER 1 PAGE
1.1 Introduction ……………………………1
1.2 Statement of the problem………………2
Reference
Appendices
List of Tables
List of Figures
Acronyms
Definition of terms
Define terms in the text that are not common.
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
This chapter should include the following;
Background –Should show understanding and genesis of the problem within your client operations.
Talk about the global perspective followed by the local scenario
A checklist would assist in coining the details
Introduction- Should introduce the research area
-Talk about the global perspective followed by the local scenario.
A checklist would assist in coining the details
Statement of the problem
- Must indicate exactly what the problem is.
- Indicate why and how it is a problem. Give information to support this e.g. by use of statistics or evidence. This should be derived from background information to illustrate connectivity.
-It should show the magnitude and effects of the problem
-Must indicate exactly what the research problem is.
-This should be tied to your title/research area.
-This should have more than the physical problem
Proposed Solution
-State what will be developed. This research seeks to …… not the prototype.
-The research component should be clearly captured within the solution
-The how (e.g. the prototype of the system) should not be mentioned.
-Students need to compare recent models-globally and regionally to come up with the best solution without giving an old technology/going backwards.
Objectives
-One general objective which should be in line with the title.
- Specific objectives- have to be in line with the variables the candidates hypothesize to influence the phenomenon being investigated.
- Should be related to the general objective.
- Should not be questions in the questionnaire.
-These should be the student’s objectives-not the client’s. It should be measurable within the 8 months of the projects
-They must cover research area, an implementation one and at least one to evaluate if they have achieved what they set out to do.
-They should be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Reliable and Testable)
-They must be research project objectives
-They should be simple statements-not a paragraph
Research Questions/Hypothesis
- They should be in line with the specific objectives and equal in number.
- Have to be numbered (1, 2, 3…..) and should be questions and not statements.
- Gives us a breakdown of the areas that would be covered.
-They should be broad areas that will bring value
-They should not have short answers that can be answered in a few words
-Research questions should be limited to research areas-NOT the client’s problem or proposed prototype
Hypothesis
-If the student is doing a hypothesis driven research, a pre-literature review is expected where the hypothesis will be stated.
Justification
Should illustrate why the researcher is conducting the research and whom it shall benefit.
Should indicate why the proposed solution will solve the client’s problem.
What is it contributing to that research area/Problem area
Proposed Research and System Methodologies
Briefly describe the proposed System implementation methodology-An outline of the methodology without discussions
Justify your choice of method
Covers the life cycle of the research
This is only covered in the proposal
Scope
- This is a kind of a disclaimer. It should cite the focus of the study geographical area or target group/ population.
- State what you will confine yourself to as far as the focus
Note:
Paragraphing should be consistent. Either leave space or indent between paragraphs.
Spacing and indenting should not be used together.
One sentence paragraphs are unacceptable.
A paragraph should have a minimum of five sentences.

Table of contents should be followed by:
List of figures/ tables- Should be labeled as per the chapters in which they are found e.g. the first figure in chapter one should be labeled as Figure 1.1

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter should include;
Introduction- Tells us what to expect to be covered
Theoretical review/Conceptual Framework
Review the empirical and theoretical literature relevant to the problem being investigated showing clearly the linkage of literature review to the research questions;
Indicate what has been done by other researchers including the methodologies used and identify gaps. Approaches previously covered
The hypothesized variables should be subheadings of the literature review to form a framework that would help in analysis.
Conceptual framework should demonstrate an understanding of what variable influences what.
Cite 3-5 references per key section in the text.
Use the Original Harvard method of citation. Consistency is important in citation.
Critique of the existing literature relevant to the study. This should be derived from the students’ arguments throughout the document-it should not be separate.
Summary
Research gaps
REFERENCES
Project research should have references. Minimum of 10 peer review references. Students are encouraged to adhere to the age of the references not be more than 5 years except in a few exceptions
APPENDICES: Instruments, Budget, work plan
2. STRUCTURE OF PROJECT REPORT
The Final Report will include the above two chapters plus;
CHAPTER 3
SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
This chapter should indicate;
Introduction:
Introduction to the chapter detailing what the chapter covers.
Describe the Systems Development Methodology that is used in the research. This is just to introduce it before the actual implementation begins.
Feasibility Study:
A statement on the project feasibility should be presented.
Requirements elicitation:
Data Collection:
-Describe the data collection tool, its preparation and how it was administered and attach it as an appendix. Use tools like Interviews, Observation, questionnaires, etc. This tool should be approved by the Supervisor before it is administered.
-The data collected must be relevant to the problem and based on the objectives of the research.
-It should be useful in deducing system requirements
Data and System Analysis:
Analyze the data collected using Statistical tools (Excel, SPSS) and represent the findings using any analytical tool (pie charts, bar graphs, line graphs, etc)
System Specification
Outline the systems requirements
In this section, you need to describe in clear, precise and non-ambiguous terms what the application will do. Let me remind you that an important objective of analyzing a problem is to determine two pieces of information: the information that must be supplied to the application, and the information that the application should produce to solve the problem. This information is what is ref...
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