Pockels Imaging System (Dissertat. Methodology Sample)
A high-contrast optical switch for imaging partially coherent light (∼150 times the diffraction limit) requires that it have a large angular acceptance. We describe the development of a high-speed Pockels cell that uses a thin crystal to simultaneously achieve high-contrast (greater than 1800:1) and large-angular acceptance (greater than 7 mrad for a 5-mm aperture). A KD*P crystal was used in a longitudinal-mode configuration with plasma discharges forming low-resistance, high optical transmission electrodes to couple the switching voltage. Rise times of the switched optical pulse of the order of 500 ps were observed. Characterization of the device in the near and far fields was also performed.
[Client’s Name] 1 and A. Langley2
1University of Surrey, Surrey, Department of PhysicsGuildford GU2 7XH, United Kingdom
2University of Surrey, Surrey, Department of PhysicsAWE Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR, United Kingdom
The Pockel effect refers to the change in refractive index emanating from a specific electric field. The experiment to demonstrate the functioning of a pockel imaging system was assembled using; Allied visions technology Guppy CCD camera, polarizer crossed at 900 CZT crystals, 980 nm narrow band pass filter, lenses, and a 50W white lamp. The apparatus was assembled as shown in figure 1. Several biases (positive and negative) were used to image the CZT sample. The results indicate that negative bias produce a more uniformed distribution while a positive bias leads to light being transmitted towards the cathode. Further results indicate that more polished surfaces allows light to be uniformly transmitted.
Keywords: CZT, Yi-CZT, Pockel, planar electrode,
Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) is a compound used in semi-conductor radiation detection and solar cells. It has a cubic crystal shape and thus has isotropic and optical properties. Electric fields inside the crystal cube leads to a movement of cadmium, zinc, and tellurium lattices. This is what is better known as Pockel’s effect.
The CZT crystal contains lattices, which exhibit various behaviors. The Pockel effect is subsequently used to image the CZT crystal. This is performed using a detailed schematic apparatus as depicted in Figure 1. A computer running the popular LabView software is connected to the GCD camera in order to generate clear images. The images are analyzed using the MatLab programs.
This template may be useful in preparing text for APS papers, or not. It is completely unofficial, and not endorsed by APS in any way. This template started from portal.fi.itb.ac.id/aps2009/files/aps2009.dot, a template for APS 2009 proceedings. However, I have modified it according my reading of the APS manuscript preparation web pages at HYPERLINK "https://authors.aps.org/ESUB/" https://authors.aps.org/ESUB/ REF esub \h , HYPERLINK "https://authors.aps.org/esubs/guidelines.html" https://authors.aps.org/esubs/guidelines.html REF guidelines \h , and my observation of a recent Phys. Rev. D paper. Note that REF guidelines \h  appears to contradict itself in places, and other web pages within the APS site contradict each other (e.g., HYPERLINK "https://authors.aps.org/esubs/faq.html#word" https://authors.aps.org/esubs/faq.html#word).
Separately, note that ArXiv requires, if using Word, a Word 2007 *.docx file, which you can easily make from this if you have Word 2007.
I am new to the APS format, and this is my first attempt, so it is likely to have some mistakes. I post it in the hope that it will save people some time, but cannot guarantee its use for anything, including APS submissions. Consult the APS web pages for current information, as this template, by itself, is wholly inadequate to prepare a paper. Please send corrections for this template to me.
REF guidelines \h  states, “Manuscripts submitted to the journals must contain original work which has not been previously published in a peer-reviewed journal, and which is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere.”.
Remember that the formatting of your manuscript is largely irrelevant to its final appearance in the journal, since they will completely reformat the text before publication. However, this template helps you see approximately how it will look, and helps with things such as references.
While editing, you should choose “Normal View,” and set _Tools_, _Options_, |View|, Style area width to 0.8” so you can see the paragraph styles on the left. I have only viewed this template on Windows, but it should be largely portable to Mac. Use “Print Layout View” for a better view of how your draft looks on a page.
This template is primarily text formatted with Word paragraph styles that are defined to provide appropriate formatting. Using Word styles is important, because it allows formatting changes to be quickly applied to the entire document by simply modifying the style. Authors can directly use the basic styles defined within this template. However, authors are free to create their own styles, and add them to this template.
Following are examples of how to cite references.?? Since the first helical nanotubes of graphitic carbon were fabricated interest has focused on quasi-one-dimensional nanostructured materials , especially those made of carbon and silicon -. Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been synthesized by both physical and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) -.
Example of writing Latin names appears in the following sentence. Some cultivar C. annuum are not spicy, but all cultivar C. frutescens are spicy .
How to Use This Template
First, change the header to have your article title on the left, and your target journal on the right
You choose your section titles as you see fit.
In Windows, to use this template, save this file to ‘aps.dot’ in a convenient directory. Then, just double click on ‘aps.dot’ in any file explorer (such as Windows Explorer). This creates a new Word document from the template. You can then “Save As” the document with a new name.
To attach this template to an existing Word document:
Open the document in Word.
Select _Tools_, _Templates_, [Attach].
Browse to this template file (e.g., aps.dot).
Once the document is attached to the template, while editing your document, you can choose a paragraph style from the drop-down box typically located in the upper left corner of Word, below the main menu.
Use SHIFT-F9 to see the coding of fields, instead of their results. Use the [¶] button to see hidden formatting marks, like spaces, tabs, and returns.
How to Use Styles
It is very important to code the correct Word Style for each paragraph, so that you can change the style once, and every relevant paragraph will instantly be updated. To use styles, authors place the cursor in a paragraph they want to format, click down-arrow in the Style dropdown-box (typically upper left corner of Word), then click the style you want. The following explains how to use each style:
The manuscript title uses style Title-article. Usually you can just overwrite the title supplied by the template. After applying this style, the template automatically shows style author when the authors press ( (Enter button) at the end of title.
Use style author to create the author’s names. Again, you can usually just overwrite the template.
Author’s Institution and address are created using style Affiliation.
Abstract content is created using style Abstract.
Section and subsection are formatted using Section Title.
Normal text is formatted using style Normal.
Figure captions use Figure style. However, the figure graphic uses picture style, which is centered.
References, Acknowledgement, and Appendix are created using style Section Title.
References are formatted using style ref.
Numbered lists use style Numbered.
Bullet lists use style bullet.
Acknowledgements use style Section unnumbered.
Equations should be encoded in MathType, and look like this:
EMBED Equation.DSMT4 ( SEQ equation \* MERGEFORMAT 1)
You number equations and reference them just like references and citations: equation REF eqint (1) is an integral. You can put short, unnumbered equations inline: EMBED Equation.DSMT4 . REF guidelines \h  states, “Use Design Science's MathType equation editor rather than Word's built-in equation editor when creating all items of a mathematical nature such as individual math symbols, Greek letters and other special characters not found on the keyboard.”
If your manuscript contains figures, they are typically placed in one column. A large figure might span two columns.
FIG. 1. (Color online) A central clock, orbited by one or more clocks. Figure captions use Figure style. The figure image itself uses picture style.
REF guidelines \h  states:
“Since the figures will not appear as color in print, authors must begin figure captions with "(Color online)" as an alert to readers of the print journal.”
“the printed size of the figure should be as close as possible to the final size to appear in the journal - the standard is 8.5 cm maximum width for one column.
any resolution-dependent graphics should be drawn with at least 600 dots per inch (dpi) resolution for pure or mixed line art, and at least 264 dpi for color or halftone images.
Since one column is 3.25 inches wide, a 600 dpi figure should be 1950 pixels wide. A 300 dpi figure would be 975 pixels wide. REF guidelines \h  states, “For all REVTeX, LaT...