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Pages:
10 pages/≈2750 words
Sources:
7 Sources
Level:
Harvard
Subject:
Business & Marketing
Type:
Dissertation - Results
Language:
English (U.K.)
Document:
MS Word
Date:
Total cost:
$ 39.95
Topic:

Lipstick Consumption Behaviourduringan Economic Recession (Dissertation - Results Sample)

Instructions:

PRESENT THE FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS OF THE DISSERTATION

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Content:
CHAPTER IV: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Introduction
This chapter presents an analysis and discussion of the findings obtained in this study. The findings have been organised around the main themes that emerged from the content data analysis process of the responses provided to the interview questions. The main themes relate to self-esteem, body transformation, attracting members of the opposite sex, ritual artefacts, place as well as self-confidence. Most of these themes are related, but they will be analysed separately in order to acquire an in-depth understanding of the respondents’ insights and experiences of using lipstick products in their day to day lives.
4.2 Overview of the demographic characteristics of the participants
The respondents in this study were 15 Caucasian women aged between 20 and 45 years. All the participants had some form of college education; 9 of the participants were undergraduate students at a local university in the UK, 4 were Masters Students or had completed their Masters, while the remaining two participants were doctoral students. Out of the 15 participants interviewed, 5 were working in various professions. All the undergraduate level participants claimed to be single.
Table 1: Characteristics of participants
Code

Sex

Education

Occupation

Age

Marital status

TN01

Female

Undergraduate

Student

21

Single

TN02

Female

Undergraduate

Student

22

Single

TN03

Female

Masters

Clericalworker

31

Single

TN04

Female

Undergraduate

Student

24

Single

TN05

Female

PhD

Marketing manager

42

Divorced

TN06

Female

Undergraduate

Sales and marketing

24

Single

TN07

Female

Undergraduate

Student

26

Single

TN08

Female

PhD

Human resource manager

39

Married

TN09

Female

Masters

Personnel manager

34

Single

TN10

Female

Masters

Nurse

41

Married

TN11

Female

Undergraduate

Students

20

Single

TN12

Female

Undergraduate

Sales and marketing

21

Single

TN13

Female

Undergraduate

Student

26

Single

TN14

Female

Masters

Student

29

Single

TN15

Female

Undergraduate

Student

21

Single

4.3 Thematic analysis
The findings in this research are organised around various themes from the responses provided by the participant’s during the data collection process. Various quotes from different respondents have been quoted to illustrate the overarching themes.
4.3.1 Transformation
According to Mullen and Johnson (2013, p19), as consumers undergo life phase transition, the consumption changes to suite their test in their new life cycle. SimilarlySheth (2011, p15) noted that individuals divest their prior identity in preparation for the new identity. This state is referred as period of laminality, it describes a period where individual behaviours are unstable, ambiguous and unknown identity that occurs within the transition process. The taste and preferences of the consumer have been known to change with the transition process.
This study identified that women used lipstick as an affordable and temporary mean through which women attempts to make new images along their life transition changes and observe the reaction of the society. Lipstick plays a similar role with plastic surgery for women with the exception that lipstick is temporal and cheap. Women test how society perceives them in their lipstick and decides to change the lipstick or stick to it.
A few respondents said that lipstick is a good way of making them feel good, but theymainly prefer it from the fact that one can change it wherever they feel that it does not meet their intended purposes. This statement implies that lipstick is a critical tool in the process of liminality period in the process of transition. User of lipstick attempts to make a new image of the user in every life transition process. If the use of a specific lipstick achieves the newly desired image, then it is adopted by the consumer. If it does not bring out the desired shape, then the use of that specific lipstick is abandoned.
Lipstick wearing also has influence on the way individuals’ mood fluctuates and the way their identity is revealed. For instance, one respondent confessed that lipstick application helps them to control their anger. The respondent said, "in case of any bad or hurting news, I usually go out and buy a lipstick" (TN05). On pursuing the respondent to clarify whether the purchased lipstick was just meant to calm the respondents down, the researcher sought to know whether the respondent would apply the lipstick after settling down. The respondent said, "Of course I will, because I would have already gotten over whatever had upset me, I have used this for a long time and I have made just one mistake when I purchased a lipstick with dark colour that I rarely use”.
In support of this factor, beauty therapists argue that changing of lipstick colour by a regular lipstick user harbours a high level of risk. It requires an individual to have confidence in the ability of the new colour to bring out the expected results. For instance, wedding preparations, parties are first planned with very careful consideration to ensure that the selected colours give the participants assurance that adopting the image produced by the colours used would meet the expected results.
In a different studyDauga and Quinn (2010, p44) found that shift of consumer to a new ritual resulted in uncertainty and anxiety for consumers. This explains the reason why women feel uncomfortable and act reluctantly with regard to changing their routine of wearing lipstick. An interesting fact is that most women who wear lipstick have more than one collection of lipsticks that have earlier been applied just in case a need to change the identity presented by the applied one arises.
Among the interesting findings made by this study was the use of lipstick as a rite of passage for women in some societies. This idea is,however,not new because Levy and Emer (2012, p 175) also made findings that some cosmetic products were used after adolescent stage. Rahman et al. (2010, p 203-206) further found that some parents allowed their children to use some products after their transition from adolescence to womanhood. The ability of a lipstick to be used as a mark for such an important life occasion is not only important to this study but require further research.
A respondent questioned on this line responded that, "I rarely wear makeup and I cannot clearly remember the time I did make up because I have been brought up in an Italian culture" (TN10). TN014 stated "…. Makeup is not an important part of a woman’s beauty like lipstick application is, my mom allowed me to wear lipstick when I reached 19 years which had to match with my complexion. I remember my first time going to shopping wearing lipstick accompanied my mum and cousin felt like a confirmation to me that I was of age. The feeling was similar to that of circumcision to men.”
Another respondent (TN12) claimed that lipstick is "a girl thing”,noting that her mother taught her from a young age that use of lipstick makes a woman look nice and tidy. This study found that the use and importance of lipstick are embedded within the culture and just like family, recipes and other traditional practices; use of lipstick and its importance is passed from one generation to another in certain societies through mother to daughter relationship.
4.3.2 Mate preferences
Some of the responses provided by the participants indicate that they are more willing to make themselves attractive to males with resources during an economic recession. As discussed earlier in the literature review, cues to an economic recession can have a significant impact on the ferocity with which women compete for mates. Indeed, some of the responses provided indicated that the participants believed that there are fewer financially stable men following an economic recession.
This argument is supported by the response provided by TN02, a university student who stated "… I care about how I look in front of men”. TN06 had a similar view "…with lipstick applied on my lips… I can look at appealing men and overcome the economic recession challenges; lipstick can make you feel great and amazing”. Similarly, TN15, still an undergraduate student claimed "… I do care about how I look… you know, you are never sure of what tomorrow might have in store for you.”
However, upon analysing the data, the researcher noted that there were some anomalies. All the responses hinting a desire to attract members of the opposite sex were provided by participants aged less than 33 years, and this can be an indication that women aged more than 34 years have some different motivations for wearing lipstick products. In total, about 38% of the sample population (90% being undergraduate students) indicated that their core application as attracting the opposite sex.
This finding correlates with the results presented by Hill et al. (2012) who found that a woman’s desire and efforts to attract financially stable malepartners increases during an economic recession. The participants in the Hill et a...
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