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Extremophiles: A Review of Related Literature (Dissertation Review Sample)


THE TASK WAS TO PROVIDE A review of related literature CONCERNING Extremophiles. THIS PAPER literature provides sufficient grounds to reason further with respect to survival of organisms. PROVES THAT It’s practical that some organisms can be found to exist where complex life is less likely to evolve, not only on planet earth but other planets such as Mars.


Extremophiles: A review of related literature
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Introduction to Extremophiles: A review of related literature
The phrase extremophile was derived to illustrate any organism that is able to grow and survive under extreme life non-supporting conditions. Research on microbial ecology provides a diverse range of exremophiles development within extreme environments (Khalid 2011).
Extremophiles are organisms that thrive under extreme conditions in addition to surviving. The phrase "extreme" is derived anthropocentrically, hence facilitating a considerable scope for what might be termed as extreme (Khalid 2011).
Karen (2010) provides references to extreme environments and argues that terrestrial surface environments such as hot springs are linked with being extreme, and are close to acidic and sulfurous, neutral pH, or rich in iron. With reference to a study by Karen (2010) the current high-temperature growth record is dominated by archaeon Pyrolobus fumariii, which has shown to biologically grow and thrive at 113°C, under laboratory monitoring. The researcher further argues that its growth is limited to temperature range of ≥85°C (Karen 2010). A vast number of acidophilic thermophiles subsist, which include genus of Acidianus (exhibiting pHopt and Topt of 90°C) (Ikuo et al., 2013). The most tremendous acid-loving examples of extremophiles are 2 species of Picrophilus formerly secluded from Japanese volcanically-heated dry soils. Inaddition to thriving in these extreme conditions, the species have depicted optimal growth at 60°C and pH 0.7 (1.2 M H2SO4) (Pabulo 2014).
The survival adaptation of Extremophiles can be viewed in two perspectives; one is that they acclimatize to function within the chemical and physical bounds of their conditions, or they uphold mesophilic environs intracellularly, protecting against external threats (Karen 2010). Halophiles are species of extremophilic class that have shown intense adaptability measures to callous, hyper saline conditions. Organisms thriving in harsh conditions entail special adaptation paradigms that enable them become point of research and exploration by diverse scholars and scientists (Karen 2010).
Probably, the paramount example of Metazoan Extremophiles that can thrive and service at extreme conditions are the as tardigrades (hydrophilous micrometazoans) (Anshu 2006). The researcher equally provides that the above uttered species characterize a detached phylum correlated to arthropods (Anshu 2006). Their ability to resist partly relates to the capacity to impede their metabolism and reinstate intracellular water with trehalose, hence conserving cellular veracity and the capacity to recommence growth upon availability of suitable conditions (Anshu 2006).
Extremophiles have been identified as credible sources of new bio-products and this extend to antimicrobials (Akanbi 2010). Given the fact that biotechnological relevance of extremophilic enzymes provides great horizons, it’s yet a lengthy way to take advantage of such prospects. However, from the perspective of the extreme capabiliti...
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