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7 pages/≈1925 words
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Harvard
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Life Sciences
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Dissertation Review
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English (U.S.)
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How Recycling Could Contribute Economically To Manchester (Dissertation Review Sample)

Instructions:

This is a final year project I want to do and therefore I have to write a literature review on that. Bellow are the contents: 1. Literature review [40% of the assignment] 2. Aim(s) and objectives [25% of the assignment] 3. Plan and timetable of work including methodology [35%] Title of the Project is: 'Reduce, Reuse and Recycling: A Critical Policy Analysis On How Recycling Could Contribute Socially and Economically To Manchester (United Kingdom). Please draw Aims and Objectives from the title. Provide Clear statement of the Aim(s) and Objectives. Present a literature review of a maximum of 2000 words based on the up-to-date academic literature that you have identified as key to underpinning your Project. Do not simply list and summarise the content of this literature. Write a critical review of this literature which is an argument that contextualises, explains and justifies your aim(s) and objectives. There is no simple number of references required. As a guide you should review here a minimum of ten pieces of up-to-date academic literature (academic journals and books). If appropriate, you may also include some reference to key secondary sources or reports of particular relevance to your topic but you must use these critically and they should not be the only sources (e.g. Government reports). Discuss this with your supervisor. Do not rely on non-academic web based sources. You must reference sources in the correct format.

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Content:
A Critical Policy Analysis on How Recycling Could Contribute Economically To Manchester, England
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A Critical Policy Analysis on How Recycling Could Contribute Economically To Manchester, England
1.0 Literature Review
1.1 Recycling
Recycling connotes converting things that are not needed into marketable and useful recycled products. Recycling, in essence, takes out useful materials from items which might otherwise be seen as garbage and turns them into new goods (Bragg 2013, p. 15). Some communities have various recycling programs for instance drop-off centers, curbside pickup of recyclables, deposit-refund programs, as well as buy-pack centers that pay people for useful items. Deposit-refund programs, for instance, a deposit as part of the product price basically refund buyers whenever they recycle items like plastic bottles and soda cans. Ferreira et al. (2014, p. 219) noted that consumers can also assist with recycling by buying goods made from material that are recycled for instance toilet paper that are made from recycled pulp. Packaging and materials that cannot be reused have to be recycled at school, home and work. Individual Britons can assist with recycling simply by buying products that are recycled and recyclable (Dashper 2013, p. 54). Recycling is a vital segment of the local as well as national economy given that it leads to creation of employment and it actually saves money to those who generate waste.
Those who advocate for recycling of products accentuate that waste products should be referred to as Post Consumer Materials (PCM) rather than garbage. Waste materials have to be considered as new renewable resources which could be utilized as raw materials for a variety of manufacturing processes. Flavell-While, (2011, p. 3) pointed out that the success of recycling is very much dependent on the behavior of consumers. In essence, recycling starts with people and is usually a voluntary act. As such, public motivation and awareness are of major importance to the triumph of recycling.
2.0 Economic benefits of recycling
2.1 Recycling saves money
It makes ideal economic and business sense to recycle items that are recyclable. There are several fiscal benefits of recycling, and one of them is that it saves money. Making products with the use of recycled materials is cheaper. For instance, the use of fresh aluminum costs two times as much as the use of recycled aluminum. The reason for this is that much more energy, that is 90 percent more, is required in extracting aluminum from its raw forms (Sansom & Avery 2014, p. 89). Consequently, goods which have been produced using recycled materials could also be bought at a less expensive price. This is an amazing recycling benefit. In addition, recycling of products benefits the economy also by cutting down on waste disposal costs; hence the community and economy of Manchester can achieve such cost savings as a consequence of recycling.
By recycling, communities could save on their waste disposal costs, such as costs of landfill, which could be very costly (Kollie 2012, p. 17). In essence, the amount of money that is saved is achieved when the avoided disposal cost, decreases in the needed solid waste services, in addition to the possible income gained from the sale of recyclables are factored into the overall equation. For sure there are certain costs that are associated with recycling as there are with every other day-to-day operations overseen by businesses. Nonetheless, those who generate waste would experience the financial benefits of a successful and well-run recycling program over time (Kollie 2012, p. 18).
Additionally, by selling recycled materials, communities could also counterbalance the cost of their waste discarding, and in so doing further cutting down on their expenses. Consequently, substantial acres of landfill space could be saved and be utilized for other purposes (Sansom & Avery 2014, p. 91). In Manchester therefore, considerable acres of landfill space can be saved and be used for purposes that generate revenue. In countries in which there is scarcity of land such as Netherlands, Britain, South Korea and Japan, saving on landfill space could imply saving by the million, and in fact incomes, if the land could be utilized for other functions that generate revenue. Through recycling items, everything could be utilized to its utmost potential, and there is nothing that is wasted. Cost-effective practices such as these save money, resources, and the environment (Thomas & Sharp 2013, p, 12). Apparently, recycling is beneficial to the economy and beyond, and the Manchester can enjoy these benefits. Besides saving money for people and communities, recycling can also produce income and provide employment for both skilled and unskilled workers.
2.1 Generates revenue and creates jobs thereby strengthening local economy
Other than the aforementioned benefits of recycling, recycling also has other benefits to the local economy, which Manchester can derive. It facilitates increased Gross National Product through the creation of new employment opportunities and producing more revenues from sale of recycled materials (Lanz 2010, p. 34). It is of note that recycling generates new businesses like processing, transporting, and selling the recovered materials, as well as firms that make and distribute goods made using recycled materials. Subsequently, jobs are created. In essence, through recycling, more jobs are created compared to when waste is merely discharged (Flavell-While 2011, p. 3). Manchester stands to derive the benefit of increased job opportunities locally which may actually strengthen its economy and help bring down the rate of unemployment in Manchester.
Studies show that recycling 10,000 tons of garbage leads to the creation of 36 jobs whereas dumping the same quantity of garbage inside a landfill creates just 6 jobs (Cabral et al. 2013, p. 1637). In contrast to jobs in garbage dumping, jobs within the recycling industry add value to the materials, for instance contributing to an increasing labor force of skilled employees including material sorters, truck drivers, dispatchers, process engineers, sales representatives, as well as chemists. Lots of these jobs are known to pay more than the average national wage and a lot of them are located in cities in which jobs are greatly required.
Certainly, there is a market for recyclable materials and the returns on investments (ROI) in the industry of recycling could be rather significant. This is because communities can be able to make money through selling some of their recyclable materials. This implies that households in Manchester can sell their recyclable materials and in so doing make extra cash. It is of note that the drive for efficient handling and usage of recycled materials serves to spur innovation which is indispensable to long-lasting economic growth. Moreover, investments in recycling equipment as well as the firms themselves filter through the economy and thereby contributing to economic growth (Kollie 2012, p. 19).
There are several nations that lack their own forests and natural resources but they import waste material, for instance paper, as raw material for their manufacturing industries. China, South Korea and even Japan import waste paper or recycled paper, and they are able to rely on the low-cost, financially feasible recycling options in order to tackle the shortage of natural resources (da Cruz 2014, p. 299). Moreover, as the market for recyclable goods continues to increase, even in Manchester, the revenue created in the industry also increases. Recycling is therefore not just good to the environment, but also to people’s pockets. To enjoy economic benefits of recycling, Thomas and Sharp (2013, p. 16) stated that behavioral alters have to be embedded amongst shoppers and a recycling market be established in which the recycled goods are chosen over new ones.
3.0 Recycling Policy in the United Kingdom
In the year 2012, the rate of recycling in Britain was 17 percent and most of the recycling was actually undertaken by statutory authorities. The local authorities have the responsibility of collecting municipal waste and operate contracts that are commonly kerbside collection schemes (Dashper 2013, p. 56). It is of note that the Household Waste Recycling Act 2003 mandate local authorities throughout England to offer each home a separate collection of at least 2 sorts of recyclable materials. Local authorities are provided with incentives toward attaining recycling targets stipulated by regional, national and European government by the imposition of fiscal penalties for failure to recycle. For instance, tariffs are imposed on the amount of garbage material that goes into landfill under a landfill tax (da Cruz 2014, p. 302).
The aim of the domestic recycling policy in the United Kingdom is essentially to encourage more persons to take control of their recycling within their own households, and several new regulations have been introduced over the last 10 years geared toward encouraging greater amounts of recycling (Thomas & 2013, p. 17). These policies include fines for individuals who do not reduce their household waste and emphasizing more on separating waste into various recyclable materials, with every council applying dissimilar rules. Of late, the focus has budged from punishing people who do not recycle enough to encouraging more persons to recycling by way of rewarding the practice (Sansom & Avery 2014, p. 93).
The recycling policy in Britain is aimed at improving levels and methods of recycling throughout Britain. The 4 key materials that it focuses on include metal cans, plastic, paper, and glass. Recycling of glass could be in the form of jars and bottles that are crushed and melted. It is of note that recycling of glass c...
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  • How Recycling Could Contribute Economically To Manchester
    Description: Reduce, Reuse and Recycling: A Critical Policy Analysis On How Recycling Could Contribute Socially and Economically To Manchester...
    7 pages/≈1925 words| 20 Sources | Harvard | Life Sciences | Dissertation Review |
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