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A Comparative Case Study of USA, UK and Australia (Dissertation Sample)


This is a dissertation where i reviewed the current practices in combating recidivism, and to assess their efficacy by focusing on the three countries (USA, UK and Australia) as case study


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Current Juvenile Delinquency Intervention Approaches to Reducing Recidivism: –A Comparative Case Study of USA, UK and Australia
Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
[Insert Name of the Degree]
At Name of the University
Your Name
Name of the University
Though only my name appears on the cover of this dissertation, I would never have completed it without the support and contribution of many other people. Indeed I cannot mention every name, but I am truly indebted and grateful to them. I am heartily grateful to my Supervisor {Insert name] whose guidance and support showed me through my dissertation writing. I am truly indebted and thankful........... (other people you wish to acknowledge).
Juvenile delinquency is a major threat in most nations, with most delinquents resorting to repeat offending even after being subjected to the correctional measures put in place to avert such repeat offending (recidivism). The USA, UK and Australia are some of the world nations that have in the recent past faced a wave of juvenile delinquency and recidivism, and have since set up myriads of juvenile intervention approaches. The aim of this study was to review the current practices in combating recidivism, and to assess their efficacy by focusing on the three countries as case study. The study finds that there is gradual tendency across the nations to shift from punitive and justice oriented methods to welfare-based, preventive and diversionary approaches. The latter are established to be more effective in reducing recidivism and handling the risk factors. Nevertheless, some nations, particularly the US and UK still retains punitive and tough strategies such as incarceration, even though they are often used as a measure of the last resort and with due regards to procedural justice. The study recommends more focus on the diversionary and preventive approaches, with integration of punitive aspects in so far as they are essential in holding the juvenile delinquents accountable for their actions and meting out justice to the victims of delinquents. Future research should focus on how best and when such integration would be done.
Key Words: Juvenile Delinquency, Recidivism, Juvenile Intervention Programs
Table of Contents
TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Acknowledgement PAGEREF _Toc331455084 \h ii
Abstract PAGEREF _Toc331455085 \h iii
Chapter 1 PAGEREF _Toc331455086 \h 1
1.0Introduction PAGEREF _Toc331455087 \h 1
1.1 Study Background PAGEREF _Toc331455088 \h 1
1.2 Problem Statement PAGEREF _Toc331455089 \h 3
1.3 Research Objectives PAGEREF _Toc331455090 \h 4
1.3.1 Specific objectives PAGEREF _Toc331455091 \h 4
1.4 Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc331455092 \h 4
1.5 Significance of the Study PAGEREF _Toc331455093 \h 5
1.6 Dissertation Chapter Overview PAGEREF _Toc331455094 \h 5
2.0 Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc331455095 \h 7
2.1 The Concept of Juvenile Delinquency PAGEREF _Toc331455096 \h 7
2.2 Juvenile Delinquency versus Crime PAGEREF _Toc331455097 \h 8
2.3 Causes of Juvenile Delinquency PAGEREF _Toc331455098 \h 9
2.4 Juvenile Delinquency Intervention Programs PAGEREF _Toc331455099 \h 9
2.5 Features of Successful Intervention Programs PAGEREF _Toc331455100 \h 10
Chapter 3 PAGEREF _Toc331455101 \h 14
3.0 Methodology PAGEREF _Toc331455102 \h 14
3.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc331455103 \h 14
3.2 Research Philosophy PAGEREF _Toc331455104 \h 14
3.3 Analytical Framework PAGEREF _Toc331455105 \h 15
3.4 Research Choice and Strategy PAGEREF _Toc331455106 \h 15
3.5 Case Study of the Three Countries PAGEREF _Toc331455107 \h 16
3.6 Validity and Reliability PAGEREF _Toc331455108 \h 16
3.7 Data Collection and Analysis PAGEREF _Toc331455109 \h 17
3.8 Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria PAGEREF _Toc331455110 \h 17
3.9 Study Limitation PAGEREF _Toc331455111 \h 18
Chapter 4 PAGEREF _Toc331455112 \h 20
4.0Findings, Discussion and Analysis: Case Studies of USA, UK and Australia PAGEREF _Toc331455113 \h 20
4.1 United States PAGEREF _Toc331455114 \h 20
4.1.1 Background PAGEREF _Toc331455115 \h 20
4.1.2 Approaches currently employed PAGEREF _Toc331455116 \h 21
4.1.3 Summary and concluding remarks PAGEREF _Toc331455117 \h 28
4.2 United Kingdom PAGEREF _Toc331455118 \h 28
4.2.1 Background PAGEREF _Toc331455119 \h 28
4.2.2 Approaches currently being employed PAGEREF _Toc331455120 \h 31
4.2.3 Current trend PAGEREF _Toc331455121 \h 38
4.2.4 Summary and concluding remarks PAGEREF _Toc331455122 \h 39
4.2.3 Concluding remarks PAGEREF _Toc331455123 \h 40
4.3 The case of Australia PAGEREF _Toc331455124 \h 40
4.3.1 Background information PAGEREF _Toc331455125 \h 40
4.3.2 Approaches Currently Employed PAGEREF _Toc331455126 \h 41
4.3.3 Current trends PAGEREF _Toc331455127 \h 50
4.3.4 Summary and concluding remarks PAGEREF _Toc331455128 \h 52
Chapter 5 PAGEREF _Toc331455129 \h 53
5.0 Conclusions and Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc331455130 \h 53
5.1 Implications for Future Research PAGEREF _Toc331455131 \h 54
5.2 Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc331455132 \h 55
References PAGEREF _Toc331455133 \h 56
Chapter 1
1 Introduction
Juvenile offending remains a significant threat across the nations. The United States of America (USA), Australia and the United Kingdom (UK) are some of the nations that have at different points in history seen juvenile delinquency take toll. This has seen emergence and evolution of various institutions and programs mean to combat juvenile delinquency. Nevertheless, more continue being lost in terms of the quality of life, productivity and monetary expenditure, courtesy of recidivism (re-offence) by the very juvenile who have been beneficiaries of the existing programs. When a wrong ore an ineffective intervention measure is applied to delinquent, chances are that there would be re-offense sooner, or even later on when the offender is then adult. Thus, ineffective methods of juvenile intervention breed or recycle juveniles, who soon graduate into hard-to-rehabilitate criminals.
In view that there is currently no consensus as to which is, or which would be the most effective method to combat juvenile delinquency, this study reviews the existing literatures and the juvenile delinquency intervention practices and programs in the US, UK and Australia with a view to developing a comparative analysis of Current trends in rehabilitating the juvenile offenders. An ultimate goal of the researcher is to establish the programs that would be most effective and the ones that would be ineffective in combating recidivism.
1.1 Study Background
Juvenile delinquency is an illegal behavior that is committed by minors (Larry, Brandon 2008). The term juvenile typically refers to those who are under 18, although in some states and nations the age can be set higher (as high as 21). Many people living in the United States, UK and Australia are juvenile delinquency. Juvenile crimes and juvenile delinquency commonly affects families, teachers, neighbors, parents and also crime victims, bystanders and perpetrators. There has been an attempt of numerous programs to lower the delinquency rate of increasing rate. Some of the employed programs are of great success while others have no impacts. It is absolutely necessary to determine the effectiveness of different types of programs to waste of resources.
Currently in United State, there exist different types of programs used to reduce juvenile delinquency, such as prevention program, Head Start Program and visitation program. The UK and Australia too have similar or related programs, as will be presented later on in chapter 4. Prevention program has been said to be the most effective programs that intervene before delinquent behavior to prevent the behavior (Barry & Donna 2011). Through getting involved early in child’s life, crimes can be reduced effectively later. Prevention program has a positive impact to the public in general because; the crime can be stopped from happening. Some of the prevention programs are more effective than others. Prevention program can be exceptional from success due to their comprehensive nature. More holistic programs have better prevention of future programs because; they take action of child’s life in different aspects. Other Juvenile Delinquent programs are Head Start program and visitation program. Their features are comprehensiveness. There are incredible results in both of these programs, through targeting specific risk factor which bring about delinquent behavior. Once the risk factor is reduced, the problem behavior is less likely to happen.
In UK, Intensive Supervision and Surveillance Program (ISSP) is one of the programs that have achieved the balance. The program provides closely and strict monitored regime used, where custodian sentence and secure remand, might be an option. The program reduces the seriousness of offending by underlying the causes of offending (Barry& Donna, 2011).
Precourt diversion program have extensive changes in Australia. According to Larry, & Brandon (2008), Precourt diversion program includes expanded use of police and additional restorative justice program referred to as family group conferences. The conferences bring juvenile offenders and the family together and professional coordinator to examine the offender’s problem. The most persistent and serious offenders that are detained as juvenile are adults. For crime reduction, the program uses intervention which focuses on minimizing the likelihood of a victim escalating into an adult offender which is a benefit to a community.
Research shows that, young offenders who go to criminal agencies have many problems and encounter needs at a high l...
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