Employee Motivation in Changing Communism Society from Perspectives of Working Class in China (Dissertation Sample)
The task was to evaluate the impact of communism on employee motivation in china.source..
Employee Motivation in Changing Communism Society from Perspectives of Working Class in China
Table of Contents TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc15115452 \h 4Background PAGEREF _Toc15115453 \h 4Problem Identification PAGEREF _Toc15115454 \h 4Threats of Knowledge PAGEREF _Toc15115455 \h 5Industry Background PAGEREF _Toc15115456 \h 5Methodology Summary PAGEREF _Toc15115457 \h 5Project Structure PAGEREF _Toc15115458 \h 6Study Objectives PAGEREF _Toc15115459 \h 6Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc15115460 \h 6Null Hypotheses PAGEREF _Toc15115461 \h 6Alternative Hypotheses PAGEREF _Toc15115462 \h 6CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc15115463 \h 6Motivation PAGEREF _Toc15115464 \h 6Communism PAGEREF _Toc15115465 \h 8The Uprising of China as a Trading Country PAGEREF _Toc15115466 \h 10Impact of Communism on Employee Motivation PAGEREF _Toc15115467 \h 11CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc15115468 \h 12Introduction PAGEREF _Toc15115469 \h 12Philosophical Stances PAGEREF _Toc15115470 \h 12Research Reasoning Approach PAGEREF _Toc15115471 \h 13Research Design PAGEREF _Toc15115472 \h 13Research Strategy PAGEREF _Toc15115473 \h 13Sampling Strategy PAGEREF _Toc15115474 \h 14Time Horizon PAGEREF _Toc15115475 \h 14Techniques and Procedures PAGEREF _Toc15115476 \h 15Reliability and Validity PAGEREF _Toc15115477 \h 15Validity PAGEREF _Toc15115478 \h 15Data Analysis Methods PAGEREF _Toc15115479 \h 16CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS PAGEREF _Toc15115480 \h 16Demographic Characteristics PAGEREF _Toc15115481 \h 16Perceptions towards Communism PAGEREF _Toc15115482 \h 17Organisational Policies and Employee Motivation PAGEREF _Toc15115483 \h 20Parameters for Regression Analysis PAGEREF _Toc15115484 \h 23CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION PAGEREF _Toc15115485 \h 24Introduction PAGEREF _Toc15115486 \h 24Perceptions towards Communism PAGEREF _Toc15115487 \h 25Organisational Policies and Employee Motivation PAGEREF _Toc15115488 \h 28CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS PAGEREF _Toc15115489 \h 31Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc15115490 \h 31Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc15115491 \h 32REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc15115492 \h 35APPENDIX PAGEREF _Toc15115493 \h 41Appendix 1: Questionnaire PAGEREF _Toc15115494 \h 41
Employee Motivation in Changing Communism Society from Perspectives of Working Class in China
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Communism is the 19th-century political theory that emerged from Europe. Marx published capitalism theory that offered a comprehensive description of the past and predicted changes that should be expected in the future in organisations and countries in relations to the management of employees and economy (Snow, 2017). Indeed, there has been a considerable transformation in the concept of employee motivation in the organisation and society at large, primarily, from communism perspective. Communism is a model that upholds the idea of collective and central economic planning of a country. As such, the primary purpose of this study was to explore employees’ motivation from the perspectives of the working class in China within the changing communist society (Snow, 2017). Communists’ countries are characterised by the lack of separation of power and the absence of a multiple party system. According to Hirschman and Kendall (2015), China’s spectacular and steady rise in the last 25 years has generated considerable debate among policymakers, academics, and the public at large as people struggle to comprehend the national and international economic transformation and shift of economic power. Employee motivation for jobs satisfaction is one of the major challenges that have perplexed many scholars about China’s economic capabilities (Snow, 2017; Unger, 2016). In particular, there has been considerable controversy regarding China’s communism and the ability to motivate employees. Only a few research have attempted to explore the effectiveness of communism concerning employee motivation (Chaisty & Whitefield, 2015). Existing literature compares communism to capitalism and seeks to understand people's perception of their jobs. Westover and Taylor (2010) affirm that most organizations find it difficult to maintain a high level of motivation among their employees. Furthermore, as a result of increased competition, globalisation, and technological advancements, retaining human capital remains to be a challenge.
There have been significant changes in employee motivation in China. The country is perceived to be a communist society since the 1970s to date. Zhu and Webber (2016) explain that over the past 45 years, employee motivation has aroused substantial interest in the academic community around the world in the perspective of capitalism. However, few researchers have sought to understand employee motivation concerning the changing working class in China. The existing body of literature seeks to understand the impact of communism and capitalism on employee motivation. Also, there is a mixed reaction concerning the impact of communism on employee motivation. Wellman and Sik (2018) demonstrate that communism provides the required incentives to motivate workers. For example, it has been indicated that through communism, employees can form a positive relationship with their superiors. Furthermore, communism allows employees and employers to cooperate effectively towards meeting the company’s goals (Keczer, 2010). Similarly, in a communist society, government employers are required to give their employees medical care covers, education incentives, and housing. These economic and cultural bonds between the employers and employee suggest a sympathetic understanding of common problems and employee loyalty to the organisation or country (Keczer, 2010). However, other scholars have found no significant impact between communism and employee motivation. Some exploratory studies such as the research conducted by Hoffmann (2013) show a negative relationship between these two variables. One of the major reasons for failure cited by the scholars is the necessity that all communists should be employed, which trivialises the work required to be done and focuses on quantity instead of quality (Kesting et al., 2016). As an outcome, this leads to economic pressure that keeps labour demands high and wages low, thus result in inadequate performance and sometimes overstaffing. Similarly, it has been shown that numerous communist societies force upon jobs based on theoretical necessity and fail to offer means of sustaining the interest of the employees or provide training (Keczer, 2010). As such, current literature is characterised by mixed reactions and debates regarding the impact of communism on creating a better working environment in society and organizations.
Threats of Knowledge
There is inconsistency in the existing literature regarding the way communism in China impact on employee motivation. Additionally, there is little research conducted to compare the effect of communism and capitalism on employee motivation. Capitalists argue that without extrinsic motivation, humans are less likely to make economic progress (Zhu & Webber, 2016). On the other hand, communists hold that major motivating factors in people are intrinsic including community’s sense of belonging and service to other people (Zhu & Webber, 2016). However, when comparing the two models, it is uncertain how they relate to human behaviour, particularly, in the currently changing society. Therefore, the current research will aim at filling this knowledge gap by attempting to understand the impact of communism on employee motivation and assess if there is a need for economic-related policy changes in China.
This study will focus on China's corporate industry. Chinese society is characterised by avoiding personal credit for the accomplishment. Moreover, it is the opposite of individual glorification, which demonstrates that Chinese subordinates do not perceive recognition of work performed as necessary. In the last 25 years, being paid or recognised for the work carried out has not been important for employees in the Chinese corporate industries since performance and entrepreneurial-based rewards were not available and compensation differentials were significantly small. However, since 1978, workers have accepted bonus-based performance. According to Hoffmann (2013), it is not clearly understood how important pay is to the Chinese employees. Oertel, Thommes, and Walgenbach (2016) indicate that many organisation researchers in China agree that things are changing quickly in most industries in the country with a lot of unstable work values as the country’s economic system is experiencing considerable transformation.
This study intends to utilise a quantitative research design. Data was collected using survey questionnaire administered on employees currently working in the corporate industry in China. A sample of 112 participants were selected randomly from the target population. The data will be analysed using SPSS computer program.
The above study is organized into six chapters. The first chapter introduces the study, gives the topic background information, and the study problem. The second chapter highlights the existing literature on employees’ motivation with regards to the working class in China. Chapter three describes the research methods applied and justification for the same. The fourth chapter reveals the study findings which are discussed in the fifth chapter. In the last section, the author gives a conclusion on the study as well as a recom...
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