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Teacher Motivation and Performance in Jeddah: A Qualitative Approach (Dissertation Sample)


this is a dissertation for masters degree on correlation between teacher motivation and performance on job. it is a qualitative study.

Teacher Motivation and Performance in Jeddah: A Qualitative ApproachBy: NameCourseInstructorInstitutionLocationDate
Table of Contents
TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u 1.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc395908324 \h 11.1 Teaching in Saudi Arabia PAGEREF _Toc395908325 \h 61.2 Objectives of study PAGEREF _Toc395908326 \h 71.3 An outline of the dissertation PAGEREF _Toc395908327 \h 72.0 Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc395908328 \h 82.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc395908329 \h 82.2 Defining motivation PAGEREF _Toc395908330 \h 82.3 Motivation Theories PAGEREF _Toc395908331 \h 102.4 Factors responsible for teachers’ motivation PAGEREF _Toc395908332 \h 162.5 Intrinsic teacher motivation PAGEREF _Toc395908333 \h 182.6 Extrinsic element of teacher motivation PAGEREF _Toc395908334 \h 212.7 Motivation and job satisfaction PAGEREF _Toc395908335 \h 242.8 Teacher motivation and rewards PAGEREF _Toc395908336 \h 252.9 Motivation and teacher performance PAGEREF _Toc395908337 \h 28Chapter summary PAGEREF _Toc395908338 \h 303.0 Methodology PAGEREF _Toc395908339 \h 313.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc395908340 \h 313.2 Research Paradigm PAGEREF _Toc395908341 \h 313.3 Research methodology PAGEREF _Toc395908342 \h 323.4 Participants and sampling PAGEREF _Toc395908343 \h 323.5 Research context PAGEREF _Toc395908344 \h 333.6 Data collection procedures PAGEREF _Toc395908345 \h 343.7 Data analysis PAGEREF _Toc395908346 \h 343.8 Ethical considerations PAGEREF _Toc395908347 \h 373.9 Chapter summary PAGEREF _Toc395908348 \h 384.0 Findings and Discussions PAGEREF _Toc395908349 \h 394.1 Findings PAGEREF _Toc395908350 \h 394.1.1 Participants’ profiles and reasons for becoming teachers PAGEREF _Toc395908351 \h 394.1.2 Themes and patterns PAGEREF _Toc395908352 \h 414.1.2.1 Teaching PAGEREF _Toc395908353 \h 424.1.2.2 Students PAGEREF _Toc395908354 \h 434.1.2.3 Administration PAGEREF _Toc395908355 \h 464.1.2.4 Social-contextual influences PAGEREF _Toc395908356 \h 484.1.2.5 Professional development PAGEREF _Toc395908357 \h 504.2 Discussion PAGEREF _Toc395908358 \h 514.2.1 Motivation to become a teacher PAGEREF _Toc395908359 \h 514.2.2 Current factors influencing teachers’ motivation PAGEREF _Toc395908360 \h 524.2.3 Teachers’ performance and motivation PAGEREF _Toc395908361 \h 555.0 Conclusion and Recommendation PAGEREF _Toc395908362 \h 575.1 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc395908363 \h 575.2 Recommendation PAGEREF _Toc395908364 \h 58References PAGEREF _Toc395908365 \h 60Appendix PAGEREF _Toc395908366 \h 69
1.0 Introduction
Motivation is the backbone of constructive work performance and as Barron (1991, p.1), indicates, motivation is "one of the most pivotal concerns of organisational research". As societies move towards holding teachers accountable for learner’s achievement, it becomes more critical to explore the factors that motivate teachers within educational institutions. However, what motivates teachers will vary from one classroom, school to another. Even so, when looking at the quality of a teacher, motivation remains a critical aspect to study. As Brown and Hughes (2008) say a motivated teaching workforce is more likely to perform well and as a result of investing time and energy into teaching its quality will be raised.
A highly motivated teacher is more likely to encourage learners to engage in active learning and thereby improve the quality of teaching (Muller, Alliata & Benninghoff 2009). Furthermore, teacher motivation is essential for teachers’ individual fulfilment and satisfaction (de Jesus & Lens, 2004). Be that as it may, low levels of motivation among teachers can result in a number of negative educational outcomes such as professional misconduct, absenteeism, underutilisation of class time, secondary income generating activities that prevent teachers from concentrating on their teaching duties, substandard preparation among others (Bennel & Akyeampong 2007).
It is therefore surprising that ways to motivate teachers are often forgotten by executive managers, as they deal with the demands of policy makers and, at times an impatient public, to demonstrate school improvement and cope with reforms within the educational system (Mitchell, Oritz, & Mitchell 1987). Furthermore, these authors acknowledge that neither resources nor regulations, reorganizations of programmes nor technical innovations can fundamentally change school performance if the system fails to mould and actuate teacher behaviour in a manner that connects educational programme requirements to pupils’ learning needs. Nevertheless, knowing the reasons why teachers still have to contend with difficult conditions highlighted by (Gold & Roth 2013, p.39) such as deficient or deteriorating facilities, large class sizes, scarcity of equipment and supplies as well as inadequacy of other resources required to sustain quality classroom instruction might seem a step in the right direction. Majority of teachers who find themselves in schools faced with the challenges highlighted above are likely to feel disheartened, demoralised or perhaps burnt-out.
For the past few decades, teacher motivation has become a critical area of research particularly in countries such as the United State of America (USA), Australia as well as the United Kingdom (UK). Such researches have targeted issues relating to the quality of instruction and retention of qualified teachers in the profession (Richardson & Watt 2006; Muller, Alliata & Benninghoff 2009). It has been observed that the number of teachers retiring and resigning exceeded the profession’s capacity to enrol new personnel. Moreover, the number of students enrolling for teacher education programs has been on the decline owing to the fact that education is no longer viewed by the public as a prestigious profession to venture in compared to other professions (Richardson & Watt 2006). Hence, it is necessary that administrators become well-informed of what motivates teachers so as to make sure that possible dwindling interest does not hamper either teacher job performance or leaving the profession altogether. However, administrators in quest of information concerning teacher motivation have limited empirical evidence to direct them.
Despite that, recent studies indicate that both high school and elementary school teachers are experiencing deficiency in motivation compared to other professionals (e.g. Jesus and Lens, 2005). Consequently, Blase and Kirby (2000) noted that it is imperative that school heads should identify the needs of their teachers and seek ways that help teachers achieve those needs. Therefore, investigating what motivates teachers will foster leadership practices that lead to improved job performance among teachers.
A study conducted by VSO (2002) revealed that whilst demands on teachers are continually rising, there is a lot of evidence showing that teacher’ status as well as morale is decreasing. Anecdotal sources underpinning the presence of unmotivated versus motivated teachers abounds (Bishay 1996; Spear & Lee 2000; Sargent & Hannum 2005; Bennel & Akyeampong 2007). Undoubtedly, shrinking morale has grave implications on teacher hiring and retention as well as for the performance of teachers (Ashiedu & Scott-Ladd 2012). Although conditions and pay are prime contributors to motivation, it has been shown that other issues are as significant as the actual remuneration levels. For example, motivation is highly related to career-path projections and opportunities for progression (VSO 2002).
As stated at the beginning of the chapter, teacher motivation appears to have three distinct outcomes. First, teachers’ performance is improved when they are working in an environment that is conducive to improve their motivation (Yuan et al. 2013). Without doubt, the liveliness of an organisation, whether public or private, is derived from its workers’ motivation, even though their capabilities play just as vital a role in regulating their work performance as their motivation. Ifinedo (2003) revealed that it is easier to spot a motivated worker based on high-levels of agility, enthusiasm, dedication, general performance, focus, as well as contribution to organisational goals and objectives, and in this case the quality of teaching. Perhaps, this explains Richardson, Short and Prickett’s (1993, p.171) acknowledgement that "without teachers who are motivated to teach, the search for excellence will be in vain". According to these authors, when teachers are not motivated neither are the students. Similarly, in the event that teachers’ motivational needs remain unmet it is highly probable that the whole educational system will also be affected.
Secondly, as indicated above, teacher motivation affects students’ performance. According to Brown and Hughes (2008, p.47), "among the greatest tasks of teachers is to inspire students to acquire a love for learning, an intrinsic motivation" and they go ahead to ask "would it not be easier for teachers to inspire something within their students that flourishes within themselves?" (p.47). Research has shown that the perceptions held by learners with regard to teachers’ motivational orientation and instructional behaviours can impact on learners’ motivation as well as their self-determination. Besides satisfying the needs of learners and playing a great role in developing learners’ intrinsic motivation for learning, learners’ motivation is largely determined by teachers’ motivation.
Muller, Alliata and Benninghoff (2009, p.580) admit that "the less teachers are self-determined towards teaching, the more controlling they become towards students, which has a negative effect on students’ intrinsic motivation and self-determination." Tucker et al. (2005) assert that learners produce and achieve when teachers perform. Thus, it is paramount to ...
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