Foundation Reuse Environmental Benefit with a Holistic Approach (Dissertation Sample)
THE SAMPLE IS A SHORT CIVIL ENGINEERING DISSERTATION ON HOW CAN FOUNDATION RE-USE BE USED AND THE IDENTIFICATION OF RISK ASSOCIATED WITH FOUNDATION RE-USE?
THE SHORT DISSERTATION FOLLOWS THE USUAL STRUCTURE:
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY
CHAPTER 4: RESULTS
CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION
CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS
THE STUDY FOLLOWED UTILIZED A QUALITATIVE METHOD, FOLLOWING A MULTIPLE CASE STUDY OF FOUNDATION RE-USE FOR BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION. THE DATA COLLECTED FROM THE SECONDARY SOURCES IN THIS STUDY WERE QUALITATIVELY ANALYSED THROUGH THEMATIC ANALYSIS.
FOUNDATION REUSE ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFIT WITH A HOLISTIC APPROACH
The building and construction industry is faced with growing demands due to the growing population and economic empowerment among the people. At the same time, the industry faces challenges associated with the impact the sector has on the environment. The detrimental factors include large volumes of solid waste, high greenhouse gas emissions, and depletion of natural resources. Among the strategic measures that have been adopted to address the environmental challenges is foundation reuse. Reusing foundations is not a new concept in building and construction, which makes it an appropriate solution for challenges faced in the 21st century. Foundation reuse is prominent in urban settings where there is limited space and resources. The United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) advocate for the development of sustainable cities and communities including infrastructure and buildings. The adoption of SDGs orients foundation reuse to environmental benefits. The research employed the reuse decision model as the theoretical framework. The research utilizes a qualitative research method premised on interpretive research philosophy. Secondary data was gathered through an internet search utilizing Google scholar. Multiple case studies were carried out. The data were analyzed through a thematic analysis. The research findings established that foundation reuse, the risks associated with foundation reuse, and the environmental benefits are an outcome of the decision-making process. This includes the desk study, integrity assessment, durability assessment, and capacity assessment. The insights emerging from these assessments are used in mitigating risks that might compromise the projects. The research suggests that environmental benefits require the engagement of different professionals in risk management and the use of data-driven strategies in analyzing risk and making decisions.
I would like to appreciate the role played by my educators in developing this dissertation and in my other academic ventures. I thank my colleagues who have been supportive and helped me to overcome the challenges in the learning and social environments keeping me strong to finish this dissertation. I want to thank my family who has remained resilient and supportive at all times when I was doing this research.
Chapter 1: Introduction
The building and construction sector is an important contributor to the economy, and it contributes to the achievement made in the advancement of human societies. For centuries human societies have advanced their capacity to develop structures for shelter, infrastructure, workplaces, among other needs. The discovery of new materials, technologies, and techniques are some factors that have promoted the development of the sector. Despite this, the impact of buildings and construction in the natural environment has been substantial due to the carbon footprint of the developments (Yang et al., 2018). The detrimental impacts of building and construction on the environment have led to the development and implementation of sustainability concepts as the baselines for reducing the carbon emissions from the sector and other detrimental impacts the structures have on the environment. Furthermore, although the building and construction sector is a major contributor to the social and economic developments across the world, it consumes more than 30% of the raw materials, 25% of water, and 12% of land resources annually. The sector also generates more than about 25% of the solid waste in the environment. The sector produces about 40% of greenhouse emissions, which is linked to the high energy consumption during the life cycle of the buildings (Omokefe, 2021). Such factors have contributed to the adoption of different strategies that can minimize the impact of building and construction on the environment. This research seeks to investigate the environmental benefits associated with foundation reuse through a holistic approach that includes the strategies used in the reuse processes and risks associated with foundation reuse.
Foundation reuse is not a new concept in the building and construction sector. Kastritsis (2022) argues that some of the large structures, such as castles and bridges, are siting of foundations of their predecessors. Foundation reuse has, in some cases, been used as a strategic approach used in London during the Elizabethan era (1558–1603) to control urban development. During this period, new buildings were only approved for development if they were raised on old foundations. The reuse of foundations continued until the great fire of 1666 (Hawkins, 2016). In the modern data, buildings in urban areas are bigger, and the expectations of their performance have increased. This has led to increased concerns over the structural integrity of the buildings depending on their use. Consequently, there is limited reuse of foundations in new developments (Marini et al., 2018). Yang et al. (2018) note that various considerations need to be made in determining the foundation requirements for new developments. Such conditions have led to the installation of new foundations, in many cases are focused on avoiding structural damage and enhancing the aesthetic of buildings based on the designs. Despite this, Boeckmann et al. (2018) argue that the reuse of foundations can take various strategies, which implies that it does not necessarily imply erecting new buildings on old foundations. For instance, in some cases, old foundations are preserved for conservation or architectural reasons and as internal parts of new buildings. Such considerations allow the development of new buildings without increasing the load or compromising structural integrity. From another perspective, the reuse of foundations can potentially reduce the impact of new urban development on the environment.
The feasibility of reusing an existing foundation, or part of it, depends on several factors, including new building constraints and existing piles condition and capacity. According to Boeckmann et al. (2018), although foundation reuse has the potential for reducing costs, the time required in new developments, and reducing the carbon footprint of the industry, there are limitations due to technical and insurance issues. There is increased focus on the functionality of buildings, which has led to the development of new foundations rather than considering the use of old ones. Additionally, the lack of information about old foundations complicates investigations on their integrity, design, and technical aspects that can be used to establish the risks that might be faced. The lack of information about the condition and nature of the foundation system has also limited their approval for use by authorities in buildings and infrastructure projects (De Medici et al., 2017). The environmental benefits that might be gained from the reuse of foundations can be limited when they lack structural integrity or are not appropriate for the new designs. In urban settings including large cities such as London, any new construction often entails the demolition of the previous structures, which often include methods that compromise the integrity of old foundations rendering them unusable. Some foundations are too deep to be removed economically, which puts them in the way of proposed new foundations. Despite this, their integration to new designs can be challenging especially where there is a lack of adequate information about their condition and load-bearing capacity (Boeckmann et al., 2018). In this light, it is imperative to establish the environmental benefits that can promote the reuse of foundations by considering the risk and opportunities that emerge.
The rationale behind this research is that economic and population growth has led to increased demands in the building and construction sector. At the same time, there is growing concern about the impact of the sector on the environment. These concerns are linked to the climate change consequences that have had an impact on all aspects of life, economically, socially, and politically. Establishing the benefits associated with foundation reuse offers an opportunity to advance the application of such strategies in new projects.
The objectives of this research include:
* To determine how foundations can be reused.
* To determine the risks associated with foundation reuse.
* To determine the environmental benefits of foundation reuse.
The research questions are aligned with the research objectives:
* How can foundation reuse be used?
* What are the risks associated with foundation reuse?
* What are the environmental benefits of foundation reuse?
Significance of the research
This research is important to highlight the importance of reusing foundations to limit the impact demolitions, and construction of new foundations have on the environment. The insights emerging from this research will be instrumental in reducing the raw material necessary for new constructions and their impact on the environment. With the increasing demand for new buildings and infrastructure, this research can contribute to the best practices in the building and construction industry. The information is also important for regulation agencies by highlighting the consider...
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