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Relaxation Techniques and How They Help In Witnesses Recall (Dissertation Sample)


20 sources. Dissertation, To show that relaxation techniques can help memory recall among crime witnesses.


Relaxation Techniques and How They Help In Witnesses Recall
Students Name
Many thanks to my supervisor for the endless help she provided throughout this study and the support she gave to me. Many thanks also go to Greenwich University Library because this work would not have been probable without all the research that was made available to me.
Testimony from wittiness is one of the widely and most influential methods used in court. It is also note able that witnesses recall preparation should be based on helping witnesses to be able to present a message that is clear and effective. Thus, Witness recall and preparation are two important aspects that require great concern from all concerned parties.
The specific objective of this research will be to show that relaxation techniques can help memory recall among crime witnesses. In this study the hypothetical foundation will be made because it will help giving more support to the topic under study. The hypothesis in this case will be as follows. HO= People who practice relaxation techniques maybe can recall more easily memories as witnesses in a crime scene. HA= People who practice relaxation techniques may be cannot recall more easily memories as witnesses in a crime.
False convictions remain a key issue in courts due to lack of clear or relevant evidence from crime witnesses. The study will analyse a number of relaxation techniques and try to examine the degree to which they affect the memory recall of a witness
Table of Contents
 TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243593" Relaxation Techniques and How They Help In Witnesses Recall  PAGEREF _Toc387243593 \h 1
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243594" Students Name  PAGEREF _Toc387243594 \h 1
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243595" Acknowledgements  PAGEREF _Toc387243595 \h 2
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243596" Abstract  PAGEREF _Toc387243596 \h 3
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243597" Table of Contents  PAGEREF _Toc387243597 \h 3
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243598" Chapter1  PAGEREF _Toc387243598 \h 6
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243599" 1.2 Hypothetical Foundation  PAGEREF _Toc387243599 \h 9
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243600" Chapter 2: Literature Review  PAGEREF _Toc387243600 \h 10
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243602" 2.1 Relaxation techniques  PAGEREF _Toc387243602 \h 12
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243603" 2.2 Eye closure  PAGEREF _Toc387243603 \h 12
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243604" 2.3 Cognitive interviews  PAGEREF _Toc387243604 \h 13
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243605" 2.4 Meditation  PAGEREF _Toc387243605 \h 14
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243606" 2.5 Self hypnosis  PAGEREF _Toc387243606 \h 16
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243607" 2.6 Self efficacy approach  PAGEREF _Toc387243607 \h 17
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243608" 2.6.1 Self efficacy sources  PAGEREF _Toc387243608 \h 18
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243609" Chapter 3: Theoretical Perspectives  PAGEREF _Toc387243609 \h 20
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243610"  3.1 ABC relaxation theory  PAGEREF _Toc387243610 \h 20
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243611" 3.1.1 R states, R altitude, and R beliefs  PAGEREF _Toc387243611 \h 21
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243612" 3.2 ABC relaxation theory View  PAGEREF _Toc387243612 \h 22
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243613" 3.3 Confidence theories  PAGEREF _Toc387243613 \h 23
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243614" Chapter 4  PAGEREF _Toc387243614 \h 24
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243615" 4.1 Informal process  PAGEREF _Toc387243615 \h 24
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243616" 4.1.1 Cognitive dialogue  PAGEREF _Toc387243616 \h 25
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243617" 4.1.2 Memory Recuperation  PAGEREF _Toc387243617 \h 26
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243618" 4.1.3 Applied Techniques  PAGEREF _Toc387243618 \h 26
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243619" 4.1.4 Progressive Muscle Relaxation  PAGEREF _Toc387243619 \h 27
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243620" 4.1.5 Biofeedback  PAGEREF _Toc387243620 \h 27
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243621" 4.1.6 Brainwaves  PAGEREF _Toc387243621 \h 28
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243622" 4.1.7 Skin conductance  PAGEREF _Toc387243622 \h 29
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243623" 4.1.8 Autogenic Training  PAGEREF _Toc387243623 \h 29
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243624" 4.1.9 Deep breathing  PAGEREF _Toc387243624 \h 30
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243626" 4.1.10 Self-hypnosis  PAGEREF _Toc387243626 \h 30
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243627" 4.1.11 Visualization:  PAGEREF _Toc387243627 \h 31
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243628" Chapter 5: Data collection Methods  PAGEREF _Toc387243628 \h 32
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243629" 5.1The interpretive research approach  PAGEREF _Toc387243629 \h 33
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243630" 5.2 Research Methodology  PAGEREF _Toc387243630 \h 34
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243631" 5.3 Sample  PAGEREF _Toc387243631 \h 35
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243632" 5.4 Instrumentation  PAGEREF _Toc387243632 \h 36
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243633" 5.5 Data Collection  PAGEREF _Toc387243633 \h 36
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243634" 5.6 Data Analysis  PAGEREF _Toc387243634 \h 36
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243635" Chapter 6: Results, Discussion and Conclusion,  PAGEREF _Toc387243635 \h 37
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243636" 6.1 Demographic analysis  PAGEREF _Toc387243636 \h 40
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243637" 6.2 Criminal scene  PAGEREF _Toc387243637 \h 41
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243638" 6.2.1 Questions before the criminal scene  PAGEREF _Toc387243638 \h 42
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243639" 6.2.2 Questions during the crime scene  PAGEREF _Toc387243639 \h 44
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243641" 7.1 Introduction  PAGEREF _Toc387243641 \h 48
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243642" 7.2 Objective summary: relaxation techniques can help in memory recall among witnesses  PAGEREF _Toc387243642 \h 48
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243643" 7.3 Recommendations  PAGEREF _Toc387243643 \h 49
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243644" 7.4 Limitations of the study  PAGEREF _Toc387243644 \h 49
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243645" 7.5 Suggestions for further research  PAGEREF _Toc387243645 \h 50
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243646" 7.6 Conclusion  PAGEREF _Toc387243646 \h 50

Chapter1 1.0 Introduction
Testimony from wittiness is one of the widely and most influential methods used in court. In this case witness preparation is a common practice for both the attorneys and trial consultants in bolstering witness’s capability to testify. For example, in the year 2009 a clarification in regard a witness capability to testify was clearly made. This research managed to note that witnesses recall preparation should be based on helping witnesses to be able to present a message that is clear and effective. Again Neal report cites clearly that the American Bar Association maintains that preparation of witnesses can not incorporate the policies to mislead the court. As a result of preparation and testimony usage, physiological prose has managed to proliferate witnesses’ related research. Some of this research includes examination of the impacts of biased information on eye witness confidence and accuracy. This is a term that has come to be referred to as misinformation.
An eyewitness plays a very significant role in the forensic process. From the outset perspective the data that they are able to collect as well as the description that these witnesses provide has a great role in shaping the police inquiries. At the end of this process the provided testimonies in the court of law plays a big role or have significant effects on the trial outcome. This ability of eye wittiness to provide accurate account of the witnessed event has been an area of interest for psychologist. Therefore, they have been researching basing their interest on what they have observed over a centaury, following the fact that a there is a vast of these majority research that has been conducted in the 70’s. As a result of these researches a lot has been learnt of the ways which witnesses can be mistaken, or mislead into terror, however, very little has been discovered on ways to help them remember the observed information well.
It is important to note that the extent to which a witness can be able to provide detailed information about an observed past event is driven by both the memory quality and their willingness to respond to the questions asked. Questions asked to the witnesses are designed in way that the remembered information demonstrates their effectiveness is higher than just the response bias, but it’s a constitution of improved memory. There is several relaxation techniques applied such as closing of eyes. There are those that help them to give les incorrect information while others are not. The current paper bucks this trend, and discusses research into helping witnesses to remember more details, more accurately. 1.1 Background statement
The forensic practice, for example, requires any witnesses recall only the truth and the whole truth and not anything else, but the truth. In the case of eye witness maximum information is required to be recalled and it is expected to be true with the minimum amount of error. One thing to note with the human memory as far as the issues of information recall is concerned is that, it is imperfect, reconstructive, and vulnerable to pressure and objective oriented establishment. It is not objective to take such intention in this case or ground cover. However, is crucial to take it for granted the memory fallibility, and none the less ask how an interviewer c...
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