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Socio-Economic And Environmental Situations In Niger Delta (Dissertation Sample)

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This dissertation is A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF OIL EXPLORATION ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SITUATIONS IN NIGER DELTA. It therefore, major mostly on the negative effects of the drilling of oil to the environment and people's life in general.

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A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF OIL EXPLORATION ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SITUATIONS IN NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA
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Abstract
The exploration of oil in the Niger Delta has been done for several decades. However, it has had undesirable outcomes for the Delta’s inhabitants as well as the environment. The Niger Delta, which consists of a wide range of ecosystems, was once rich in diverse plant and animal species. Over time, massive environmental pollution due to oil spillage and gas flares has seen species extinction and migration rates in the region rise to alarming levels. Water sources have been contaminated by oil much like once arable lands have been rendered wastelands. As a result, local communities that once relied on farming and fishing for their livelihoods have lost their livelihoods. Poverty levels in the Niger Delta have, subsequently, risen, with the government leaving locals at the hands of oil companies. This report details a study critically assessed how oil exploration has impacted the socio-economic and environmental situations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria.
Declaration
I hereby declare that this dedication is my original work and that all works quoted in this report from other sources have been adequately acknowledged: all the illustrations used hereby surpass copyright infringement. In addition, this report has not been submitted to any other institution, whether in part or wholly, for evaluation purposes.
Name: …………………………………….
Signature: ……………………Date: ………………………….
Acknowledgement
I would like to appreciate the help extended to me by my supervisor who has been of great help in guiding me throughout the period during which this study was made. I would also like to express my heartfelt gratitude to my family and peers for their moral support and inspiration. Your kindness and support has been crucial for my success in this endeavor.
Table of Contents
TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Declaration PAGEREF _Toc460692143 \h iii
Acknowledgement PAGEREF _Toc460692144 \h iv
List of Figures PAGEREF _Toc460692145 \h vii
Table of Figures PAGEREF _Toc460692146 \h viii
CHAPTER 1 PAGEREF _Toc460692147 \h 9
1.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc460692148 \h 9
1.1 Nigeria’s Economy and Oil Production PAGEREF _Toc460692149 \h 9
1.1.1 Oil Production: The Niger Delta PAGEREF _Toc460692150 \h 11
1.2 Research Aim PAGEREF _Toc460692151 \h 12
1.3 Research Objectives PAGEREF _Toc460692152 \h 12
1.4 Research questions PAGEREF _Toc460692153 \h 13
1.5 Study Rationale PAGEREF _Toc460692154 \h 13
1.6 Chapter Summary PAGEREF _Toc460692155 \h 14
This report covers a study carried out to PAGEREF _Toc460692156 \h 14
CHAPTER II PAGEREF _Toc460692157 \h 15
2.0 Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc460692158 \h 15
2.1 Environmental Impacts of Oil Exploration in the Niger Delta PAGEREF _Toc460692159 \h 15
2.2 Socio-Economic Impacts of Oil Production in the Niger Delta PAGEREF _Toc460692160 \h 18
CHAPTER III PAGEREF _Toc460692161 \h 21
3.0 Methodology PAGEREF _Toc460692162 \h 21
3.1 Research Philosophy PAGEREF _Toc460692163 \h 22
3.2 Research Approach PAGEREF _Toc460692164 \h 23
3.3 Research Method PAGEREF _Toc460692165 \h 23
3.4 Research Strategy PAGEREF _Toc460692166 \h 24
3.5 Data Collection Method PAGEREF _Toc460692167 \h 24
3.6 Sampling Method PAGEREF _Toc460692168 \h 25
3.7 Research Limitations PAGEREF _Toc460692169 \h 25
3.8 Delimitation PAGEREF _Toc460692170 \h 25
CHAPTER IV PAGEREF _Toc460692171 \h 26
4.0 Findings and Discussion PAGEREF _Toc460692172 \h 26
4.1 Socio- Economic Challenges PAGEREF _Toc460692173 \h 26
4.1.1 Political Oppression, Impoverishment, and Marginalization PAGEREF _Toc460692174 \h 26
4.1.2 Corruption PAGEREF _Toc460692175 \h 28
4.1.3 Resource Conflicts, War and Authoritarian Rule PAGEREF _Toc460692176 \h 30
4.1.4 Declining Public Institutions: Poor Education System PAGEREF _Toc460692177 \h 33
4.1.5 Destabilization of the Middle Class PAGEREF _Toc460692178 \h 35
4.1.6 Reduced Agricultural Production: Loss of Farmlands and Fishing PAGEREF _Toc460692179 \h 35
4.2 Environmental Impacts of Oil and Gas Production PAGEREF _Toc460692180 \h 37
CHAPTER V PAGEREF _Toc460692181 \h 42
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc460692182 \h 42
5.1 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc460692183 \h 42
5.2 Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc460692184 \h 43
5.3 Reflective Log PAGEREF _Toc460692185 \h 44
References PAGEREF _Toc460692186 \h 47
Appendices PAGEREF _Toc460692216 \h 55
Appendix I: The States of the Niger Delta Region. PAGEREF _Toc460692217 \h 55
Appendix II: Oil spillage in the Niger Delta PAGEREF _Toc460692218 \h 56
Appendix III: Looting by Nigerian Leaders PAGEREF _Toc460692219 \h 57
Appendix IV: Deaths from the Niger Delta Conflict PAGEREF _Toc460692220 \h 58
List of Figures
TOC \h \z \c "Figure" Figure 1: States of the Niger Delta. Adapted from Ite (2013) PAGEREF _Toc460717557 \h 11
Figure 2: Deaths related to Oil Protests in the Niger Delta, Adapted from Adams, N. (2014). PAGEREF _Toc460717558 \h 32
Figure 3: Comparisson of the Gulf Oil Spill to the Niger Delta Oil Spills (Vidal, 2010) PAGEREF _Toc460717559 \h 36
Figure 4: Causes of environmental degradation in Nigeria (Muhammed & Demirci, 2015) PAGEREF _Toc460717560 \h 37
Figure 5: Incidents of oil spills, sabotage and theft of oil revenue in Shell’s plants in 2014 (Salau, 2015) PAGEREF _Toc460717561 \h 38
Figure 6: The States of the Niger Delta Region. Adapted from the NNDC (2016): The Niger Delta development master plan PAGEREF _Toc460717562 \h 55
Figure 7: Oil pollution in the Niger Delta. Adapted from Eboh, C., & Onuah, F. (2015). PAGEREF _Toc460717563 \h 56
Figure 8: Oil spills in the Niger Delta. Adapted from Jim (2015). PAGEREF _Toc460717564 \h 56
Figure 9: Involvement of oil companies in crime in the Niger Delta. Adapted from Nigeria Watch: Third Report on Violence (2006-2011) PAGEREF _Toc460717565 \h 58
Table of Figures TOC \h \z \c "Table"
Table 1: Nigerian presidents since the nation’s independence. Adapted from Smith (2008) PAGEREF _Toc460717567 \h 31
Table 2: Akri Farme...
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