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Editing
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Editing An D Correcting Mosty On Grammar And Redoing Data Analysis (Editing Sample)

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editing an d correcting mosty on grammar and redoing data analysis

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ABSTRACT
There is a strong challenge for controlling the excess runoff from impervious surfaces. The frequency and intensity of flood may increase by changing climate as well as rapid urbanization. One of the best approaches is low impact development (LID) practices using green infrastructures (GIs). However, to evaluate the benefits of GIs is not an easy task due to parametric issues relating to GIs and sub-catchments. The goal of this study is to provide a practical guideline to parameterize and simulate popular GIs in residential areas. EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was selected as a test simulator due to its awareness by water resources engineers. Bio-retention cells and rain barrels are identified as popular GIs in many Cleveland areas. A residential sub-catchment in Parma, Ohio was selected for demonstration examples. The hydrologic properties of a sub-catchment and sewer networks were determined using Cuyahoga County Geographic Information System. GIs (bio-retention cells and rain barrels) were carefully parameterized into SWMM LID modules through field survey and existing related report. All step-by- step procedures were well documented. SWMM parameters were calibrated using the observed rainfall-runoff events with and without GIs. Finally, the calibrated models are used to evaluate the effects of GIs on existing storm water drainage networks under various rainfall scenarios (10-, 25-, and 50-year return periods). The guideline developed in this study are easily applicable to other similar watersheds to evaluate or design GIs.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOC \o "1-3" \u ABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc469026142 \h iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGEREF _Toc469026143 \h v
LIST OF TABLES PAGEREF _Toc469026144 \h vii
LIST OF FIGUREURES PAGEREF _Toc469026145 \h viii
CHAPTER I PAGEREF _Toc469026146 \h 1
INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc469026147 \h 1
1.1Background PAGEREF _Toc469026148 \h 1
1.2Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc469026149 \h 4
1.3Research Objectives PAGEREF _Toc469026150 \h 5
1.4Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc469026151 \h 6
1.5Organization of the Thesis PAGEREF _Toc469026152 \h 11
CHAPTER II PAGEREF _Toc469026153 \h 12
STUDY AREA AND DATA PAGEREF _Toc469026154 \h 12
2.1Site Description PAGEREF _Toc469026155 \h 12
2.2Data Collection PAGEREF _Toc469026157 \h 15
CHAPTER III PAGEREF _Toc469026158 \h 16
3.1Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) PAGEREF _Toc469026159 \h 16
3.2 Low Impact Development (LID) Controls PAGEREF _Toc469026160 \h 21
3.2.1Bio-retention PAGEREF _Toc469026161 \h 21
3.2.2 Rain Barrel PAGEREF _Toc469026162 \h 29
3.3 Model Setup in SWMM PAGEREF _Toc469026163 \h 32
3.4 Simulation Scenarios PAGEREF _Toc469026164 \h 38
3.5 Parameter Calibration PAGEREF _Toc469026165 \h 42
CHAPTER IV PAGEREF _Toc469026166 \h 43
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION PAGEREF _Toc469026167 \h 43
4.1 Calibration PAGEREF _Toc469026168 \h 43
4.2 Model Results PAGEREF _Toc469026169 \h 45
4.2.1 Total volume PAGEREF _Toc469026170 \h 45
4.2.2 Peak storm flow PAGEREF _Toc469026171 \h 45
4.2.3 Water Surface Profile PAGEREF _Toc469026172 \h 47
CHAPTER V PAGEREF _Toc469026173 \h 49
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION PAGEREF _Toc469026174 \h 49
REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc469026175 \h 52
APPENDICES PAGEREF _Toc469026176 \h 56
LIST OF TABLEs
TOC \h \z \c "Table" Table 1. Subcatchment characteristics as defined in SWMM5 PAGEREF _Toc471086717 \h 27
Table 2. Bio-retention parameters represented in SWMM5 PAGEREF _Toc471086718 \h 36
Table 3. Parameters to be considered for different cases PAGEREF _Toc471086719 \h 38
Table 4. Street Conduit shape information PAGEREF _Toc471086720 \h 43
Table 5. Precipitation depth (mm) for different return periods PAGEREF _Toc471086721 \h 44
Table 6. Simulation scenario PAGEREF _Toc471086722 \h 46
Table 7. Calibrated parameters of the street PAGEREF _Toc471086723 \h 51
Table 8. Total volume for different return periods PAGEREF _Toc471086724 \h 54
Table 9. Peak flow for different return periods. PAGEREF _Toc471086725 \h 54
Table 10. Subcatchment properties used in SWMM model. PAGEREF _Toc471086726 \h 67
Table 11. Subcatchment Properties used in SWMM model PAGEREF _Toc471086727 \h 67
Table 12. Junction Information PAGEREF _Toc471086728 \h 68
Table 13. Conduit Information PAGEREF _Toc471086729 \h 68
Table 14. Bio-retention properties PAGEREF _Toc471086730 \h 69
LIST OF FIGUREs
TOC \h \z \c "Figure" Figure 1. Location of Klusner Street in Parma, Ohio PAGEREF _Toc471086746 \h 22
Figure 2. Screen shot of a) Junction drawings and b) Calculations made using Cuyahoga County GIS PAGEREF _Toc471086747 \h 24
Figure 3. Nonlinear reservoir model of a sub-catchment (Rossman, 2010) PAGEREF _Toc471086748 \h 26
Figure 4. (a) Route impervious to pervious (b) LID as separate catchment (c) LID included in the catchment PAGEREF _Toc471086749 \h 29
Figure 5. LID Control Editor in SWMM5 PAGEREF _Toc471086750 \h 35
Figure 6. Parameter representation of bio-retention in SWMM5 PAGEREF _Toc471086751 \h 35
Figure 7. Rain barrel parameters PAGEREF _Toc471086752 \h 39
Figure 8. Rain Barrel Control Editor in SWMM5 PAGEREF _Toc471086753 \h 40
Figure 9. Schematic Diagram of the sub-basin a) Traditional sub-basin b) New Approach model PAGEREF _Toc471086754 \h 42
Figure 10. Rainfall Hyetographs a) 1yr- 25mm b) 2yr-31mm c) 5yr-39mm d)10yr-45mm e) 25yr-53mm f) 50 yr-59mm PAGEREF _Toc471086755 \h 45
Figure 11. SWMM diagram for the Klusner area a) west side of the street, b) east side of the street PAGEREF _Toc471086756 \h 47
Figure 12. Screenshot of LID usage editor in SWMM5 PAGEREF _Toc471086757 \h 49
Figure 13. A) Shows the predicted with observed peak storm flow (Jarden et. al, 2015) and B) Scatter Plot of predicted and observed data PAGEREF _Toc471086758 \h 53
Figure 14. SWMM Peak flow comparison with and without LIDs for a) 1yr-1hr b) 2yr-1hr c) 5yr-1hr d) 10yr-1hr e)25yr-1hr f) 50yr-1hr PAGEREF _Toc471086759 \h 55
Figure 15. Water surface profile captured at the peak flow for a) 50yr-1hr b) 25yr-1hr PAGEREF _Toc471086760 \h 57
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1 Background
Urbanization refers to the increase of population living in urban areas. In 1800, only 3% of the population lived in urban areas. Historically, the human population has lived in rural areas and been dependent on agriculture. The world has experienced an unexpected growth of urbanization in recent decades which has caused the natural landscapes to transform to impervious land covers. Impervious land cover occurs when the soil is covered by impermeable materials, such as asphalt or concrete. Natural landscapes are shifted to impervious covers due to urbanization.
Impervious cover is now an environmental concern. The impervious areas are responsible for more storm water runoff than any other land use. It modifies the hydrologic cycle and affects urban air and water uses. Impervious cover collects particulate matter from the atmosphere, pollutants from vehicles, debris, and many other pollutants. These pollutants are then transferred through sewer pipes to lakes and rivers thus contaminating them. This contamination led to the installation of sanitary and storm sewers (Combined Sewer, 2016). The sewage collection system used a single pipe system to collect sanitary and runoff water from streets and roads. This type of collection is called Combined Sewer Overflows (CSO) (Combined Sewer, 2016). Increased urbanization led to increased paved areas that channel huge amounts of rain into the combined sewer.
The Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District (NEORSD) manages waste water and storm water in Cleveland, Ohio. In 2011, NEORSD filed a “consent decree” with the EPA, and according to the decree, the NEORSD has 25 years to reduce CSO volumes by 90 % (Jefferson, 2013). Annually, 4.5 billion gallons of untreated sewage is being discharged into Lake Erie (Lyandres, 2012).
Impervious cover and CSO pose a great challenge. They have a profound and irreversible effect on water quality, water quantity, and base flow. According to the nonprofit Center for Watershed Protection (2005), as much as 65% of the total impervious cover over America’s landscape consists of streets, parking lots, and driveways—what a center staff referred to as “habitat for cars.” (Frazer, 2005).
Best Management Practice (BMP) is an alternative approach which protects the natural environment and promotes economic growth. Green infrastructure principles allow the water to permeate into the ground to reduce storm water runoff (USEPA, 2000). Low Impact Development (LID) focuses on direct treatment of storm water at the site. Bio-retention facilities, rain barrels, and rain Gardens are the low impact development practices that perform best in controlling storm water. LID application is important because it conserves water and thus balances humankind and nature on climate change.
Residential communities have from 12% to 38% of their areas considered as impervious depending on the lot size (Urban hydrology for small watersheds, 1986). Communities need to recognize that proper storm water management is a marketable asset to the community. Storm water management supports property values in the community by eliminating flooding concerns and maintaining traffic corridors. The Ohio Supreme Court ruled that NEORSD has the authority to assess a fee for storm water (Maloney, 2015). The storm water fee is based on the amount of impervious surfaces, which include roofs, roads, driveways, and parking lots. It measures the amount of impervious surfaces based on the number of Equivalent Residential Units (ERUs)for non-residential property, and the fee is charged to residential property based on square footage of the impervious surface (Meyer...
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