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4 pages/≈1100 words
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APA
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Biological & Biomedical Sciences
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Essay
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English (U.S.)
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Topic:

Description, Prevalence, and Incidences of Genetic Diabetes (Essay Sample)

Instructions:

Paper details
Using genetics information with diabetic disease, include the following:
Description of the diabetes, its prevalence, and its incidence.
Discussion of laboratory testing that is possible.
Guidelines and reasons behind the FDA regulations for introducing new pharmaceutical agents.
The role that money and grants play in scientific advances; the economics of health care,
The role and involvement family plays into the health care decision.

source..
Content:


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Genetics
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Genetics
Introduction
The disease burden of diabetes is high and increasing in various countries across the world. The diabetes burden is fueled by the increase in the prevalence of obesity combined with unhealthy living lifestyles (Fuchsberger et al., 2016). Diabetes is a metabolic condition where the body fails to synthesize adequate insulin. 
The condition is caused by many factors such as auto resistant obliteration of the insulin-synthesizing cells, gestational diabetes, which is a state of glucose intolerance during pregnancy, and the genetically determined diabetes. The main types of diabetes are type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes (Pociot & Lernmark, 2016). The essay will describe genetic diabetes, its prevalence and incidences, its laboratory testing, FDA guidelines for introducing medicinal agents, and the role of currency and endowments in providing scientific innovations. 
Description, Prevalence, and Incidences of Genetic Diabetes
The first kin members have a likelihood of getting type 1 diabetes than other distinct people from the overall populace. These findings show that hereditary factors are highly involved in the growth and prevalence of diabetes. Current facts show that there are over twenty areas of the human genome that are involved in vulnerability to type one diabetes (Fuchsberger et al., 2016). The genes which are located in the HLA area of chromosome 6 present a higher risk of diabetes development. This area has several hundred genes that facilitate immune response. The gene which is mostly involved with diabetes is the HLA class II gene. It contributes to forty to fifty percent of the genetic peril for diabetes. 
In the case of Type 1 diabetes, the affected person needs to inherit the medical risk factors from both parents. However, environmental triggers play a major role in the development of type 1 diabetes (Pociot & Lernmark, 2016). For example, cold weather and viruses are triggers of type 1 diabetes. The prevalence rate of a child developing genetic diabetes is one in seventeen. The child is likely to be diagnosed with genetic diabetes by the age of 11. For type two diabetes, the condition is more likely to be predominant in certain groups at the expense of others (Pociot & Lernmark, 2016). The genetic type 2 diabetes is predominant in African Americans, American Indians, Asian Americans, and Hispanics.
The incidence of genetic diabetes mainly starts with a high body mass index (BM1) for the affected person. The risk of the disease is higher for people who have a BMI of 25 and more. People who have an age of 45 years or older are more likely to develop genetic diabetes (Pociot & Lernmark, 2016). The incidences of the condition are also higher for people who have excess weight, individuals with a high level of cholesterol, people who have high blood pressure, depression, and those who have a history of cardiovascular illness. 
Laboratory Testing
Laboratory tests have been conducted to check for the genetic changes in the patient`s DNA. These changes help in diagnosing the person with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The rationale behind this laboratory testing is that each of the thirty genetic transformations carries a risk of type 1 diabetes. The laboratory test links all the perils in one score, which represents a summary of the individual`s hereditary danger for type 1 diabetes. When the score of the individual is high, he or she is likely to have type 1 diabetes. When the laboratory test score is small, he or she is more likely to have type 2 diabetes. 
Laboratory testing can also be done using the polygenic test score, which shows the likelihood of being born with or developing diabetes. The polygenic risk scores depend on several genes and mutations. It involves certain calculations that assess the cumulative impact of thousands of minimal variations that are scattered in the genome. However, some variations are beneficial, and they improve the health of an individual. The polygenic risk score for type 2 diabetes is according to a research which was done using the DNA of various consumers. Therefore, the risk score can tell whether a person has a higher likelihood or susceptibility to developing diabetes. 
The large repositories of genetic information from the overall public help scientists to identify how specific genetic variations increase or decrease the risks of acquiring diabetes. For example, the polygenic score can identify whether a person a three times higher risk of acquiring type 2 diabetes (Hod et al., 2016). The laboratory test for genetic diabetes is important because it helps in preventing the onset of type 1 diabetes. It shifts the medical focus from diagnosis to prevention.
Reasons Behind FDA Regulations for New Pharmaceutical Agents
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the central mandate of ensuring that all pharmaceutical agents are providing safe and effective drugs. FDA also has the authority of regulating new diabetes drugs, which are introduced for the US population (Van Norman, 2016). The organization provides several regulations to ensure that the approval of new drugs whose overall health outweighs the risks which are associated with the drug. 
FDA provides several regulations in order to guarantee the safety and efficacy of using new medications. This subsequently helps in protecting any diabetic patients from adverse therapeutics, through early and late medical trials. The trials investigate the tolerability and the side impacts of any medical drugs which are introduced by new medicinal agents. The FDA has the role of maintaining public health through an approval process (Van Norman, 2016). The new drug application (NDA) process is used to streamline all the regulations and administrations of a new diabetes drug, which is introduced by the pharmaceutical agents.
Role of Money and Grants in Scientific Advances
The achievement of a long, healthy life requires the incorporation of various scarce resources, and this is a common economic challenge. The special economics of healthcare should be considered in order to provide better health outcomes to people in the general population and to facilitate science advances (Perlman et al., 2016).

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