Kirkpatrick, Brinkerhoff, and Phillips Training Evaluation Models (Essay Sample)
This essay aims to describe the Kirkpatrick, Brinkerhoff, and Phillips training evaluation models and state which one is the best to help a corporate training director generate the data needed for Talent Development Reporting (TDR). describe how each training evaluation model helps top management with crucial information about the performance of each training method.source..
Kirkpatrick, Brinkerhoff, and Phillips Training Evaluation Models
Kirkpatrick, Brinkerhoff, and Phillips Training Evaluation Models
Technological advancements in the 21st Century have increased the need for training in organizations to cope with the changing business environment. Managers commit substantial resources in providing the appropriate training package to improve the skills and competencies of their employees. The role of training evaluation models is to provide top management with crucial information about the performance of each training method (Heydari et al., 2019). Additionally, training evaluation models pinpoint the benefits of the training compared to the total cost outlay. This essay aims to describe the Kirkpatrick, Brinkerhoff, and Phillips training evaluation models and state which one is the best to help a corporate training director generate the data needed for Talent Development Reporting (TDR).
The Kirkpatrick Model is the most popular training evaluation model in modern businesses. Kirkpatrick invented the model to help organizations evaluate key competencies that employees learned from the training. There are four levels in the Kirkpatrick Model: reaction, learning, behavior, and results (La Duke, 2017). Each level is concerned with measuring different aspects of the training process. Level one in the Kirkpatrick Model measures personnel's satisfaction and their overall reaction to the training method (La Duke, 2017). Level two evaluates the actual skills and competencies that the staff learned from the training session. The key competencies that employees learned from the training are evaluated to ensure they have the necessary skills and expertise to perform their roles.
Managers are concerned with how the training impacted their employees. Level three of the Kirkpatrick Model evaluates the actual behavioral changes that personnel display when executing their roles due to the principles and competencies acquired during the training (Reio et al., 2017). To establish the above-mentioned changes, managers and supervisors employ various tools such as interviews, surveys, and scorecard reports. Level four measures the actual training results in terms of sales revenue, competitive advantage, market share, and profitability to evaluate the benefits of the training program (Reio et al., 2017). The evidence shows that level three and level four are mainly concerned with measuring the impact of the training on the set organizational objectives.
The Robert Brinkerhoff Model was established to help organizations evaluate the success of their training methods. Robert Brinkerhoff's six-stage evaluation model is based on the belief that managers should only implement a training program beneficial to the organization (Kraiger et al., 2020). Additionally, the model is premised on the principle that an effective training evaluation model should generate essential information that can be leveraged to improve the training program. In stage one, the organization performs a skills gap and needs analysis to formulate the most appropriate training method. The ideal training model and plan are developed and examined in stage two. The developed training program is implemented in stage three, where monitoring and control alter any undesired outcomes (Kraiger et al., 2020). A thorough investigation is conducted in stage four to establish who learned the desired skills, knowledge, and attitudes from the training program. In stage five, managers monitor how long employees will keep on applying the acquired knowledge and competencies in the business (Kraiger et al., 2020). In the last stage, top management measures the actual benefits accrued to the firm, such as increased sales revenue, profitability, and competitive advantage in the marketplace due to the training program.
Jack Phillips realized the need to incorporate the fifth level to the Kirkpatrick training evaluation model. The Phillips Model comprises all the four levels of the Kirkpatrick Model in addition to level five, concerned with Return on Investment (ROI) (Phillips & Phillips, 2016). ROI is a crucial component that informs managers on the net profit or loss accrued from the training program. In level five, Phillips opines that managers should consider all the accrued expenses and deduct them from the total revenues realized from the training program (Phillips & Phillips, 2016). All the expenses and revenues not directly related to the training program are omitted to arrive at a correct figure. The actual benefits of the training program are calculated by assigning monetary values to the data collected in level four of the Kirkpatrick Model. The total costs of designing and implementing the training session are compared with the benefits of obtaining ROI.
Based on the above discussion, the Brinkerhoff Model would best help a corporate training director generate the data needed for TDR. Th
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