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APA
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Engineering
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English (U.S.)
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Policy Brief: Water Management (Essay Sample)

Instructions:

The Policy Brief will build directly on your Policy Background paper. The challenge is to
distill the main message and recommendations from the longer paper into a short, plain
language brief of approximately 1,000 words, roughly 2-pages single spaced (though it
might be 3 pages if you incorporate many photos or other visuals).

source..
Content:


Policy Brief: Water Management
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Policy Brief: Water Management
Universal access to safe drinking water and sanitation is one of the major roadblocks to long-term development. With the exception of a few countries, every nation has universal access to safe drinking water and sanitation. Between 1990 and 2000, access to clean water increased from 73 percent to almost 80 percent of the population in developing nations. But there is still plenty to do. Water-borne illnesses cause an estimated 1.7 million fatalities each year in developing nations. To address these issues, countries are trying to reduce the number of people accessing clean water and sanitation by 50%. It will not be simple, but it is feasible with stable funding and appropriate water management (Nguyen et al., 2019).
center135126000Reliable funding is required to enhance water and sanitation services. Financers include governmental funds, foreign aid, commercial investors, and water utility fees. Long-term, a sustainable funding structure should be based on water rates, including allowances for the needy. Water management requires enough clean water for both human and ecological requirements. Soliciting input from the business sector is an excellent way to ensure good governance. Agriculture, being the biggest consumer of water, will need to be encouraged to utilize it sustainably.
Source: Shahane (2020)
The Water Challenge
Water resources will be under considerable strain in the following decades. Climate change will decrease the certainty of water while increasing its supplies vulnerability due to rising sea levels, storm damage, and seasonal impacts like winter floods and summer droughts. Moreover, increasing pollution levels, physical supply disruptions, and potential terrorist attacks on necessary facilities may refocus attention on water security problems in certain nations.
Water consumption is expected to increase by 30% in developing nations and over 10% in affluent ones by 2025. Competition for limited resources and declining water quality and quantity may destabilize a region's growth (Nguyen et al., 2019). The demands on developing nations are stark: millions of more people must have access to clean water and sanitation. Rapid action would enable developing nations to benefit from the increased provision and fundamental improvements from enormous socio-economic benefits. Finance will be a significant issue for transition economies. Much of the water supply and sanitation infrastructure in different countries is due for replacement, and most governments have no plans to fund the necessary replacement and maintenance. The creation and effective execution of basin-level water management strategies will also be a difficulty.
Improving Water Governance
Economists say that water management requires balancing economic, social, and Developing integrated water resources management plans (IWRM), a crucial step towards a sustainable governance system (Al-Saidi, 2017). Policy coherence and management efficiency need a cross-government strategy. Water and sanitation utilities are owned by public agencies and are regulated by both public and private authorities. Distinguishing between the state's roles as a regulator, owner, and potential service provider may help separate public and private interests.
Performance-based contracts between water companies and municipalities may be a helpful management tool in this regard. Regulators may set clear goals and agree on resources and capabilities with water utilities.
A cohesive strategy to water management, such as a "river basin" approach, is required, with explicit agreement on local, national, and federal authorities' duties and a method for resolving local disputes. Contracts and collaborations between the national and municipal levels may assist, as can granting specialized regulatory powers to basin-level authorities.
Private Sector
However, a rising sector of commercial service providers competes for the right to finance, construct, manage, and maintain water delivery infrastructure. At the same time, many nations are moving away from being "water providers" to being "regulators," indicating a change in the role of governments. While this tendency has increased the involvement of the private sector, ownership responsibility typically remains public. Popular models include "affermage" (private management of public water assets) and "concession" (private funding of projects).
In recent years, international private sector operators have had less success in transition and emerging nations, with many decreasing their operations. This tendency is due to water operators being exposed to substantial political and economic risks. Water networks have far higher capital costs than other infrastructure services. They are primarily funded using short-term loans. Due to the large initial expenditures, lengthy payback periods are required, and income sources must be as solid as feasible. Urban water services are another low-profit industry.
Consequently, private operators are susceptible to the investment environment and risk. Domestic private sector players are increasingly entering developing water markets. Private sector involvement beyond the low-risk zones is likely to shape service or management contracts, where the private operator provides expertise rather than financial resources. The importance of public finances in funding water infrastructure in developing nations will likely continue in the near future.
Sustainable water management in agr

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