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Scientific Breakthrough That Changedthe World of Science and Impacts Society in Modern World (Essay Sample)


This an general essay written by me to answer the question, explain a scientific breakthrough that changed the world of science and impacts society in modern world.
This is a topic of the field biology.


Scientific breakthrough
A breakthrough is an important discovery or event that helps to improve a situation or provides an answer to a mystery. Scientific breakthroughs are commonly understood as discoveries that transform the knowledge frontiers and have major impacts on science, technology, and society.
There had been many important scientific breakthroughs in the last 300 years, which have transformed the world and have impacted society from multiple angles. But the greater impact in the world has been observed after the discovery of DNA. DNA has revolutionized the world and has impacted society in many ways, which we will discuss later in this article.
What is DNA?
DNA is a self-replicating material, which is present in all living organisms
as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information from parents to offspring. DNA (de-oxyribo nucleic acid) is a double helix, twisted ladder type of molecule, which is responsible for inheritance in organisms.
It is a very complex molecule (polymer), the smaller units of DNA are called nucleotides (monomers). Each of its nucleotides is made up of three components;
De-oxyribose sugar (C5H11O4)
Phospheric acid (H3PO4)
Nitrogenous base
There are four different types of nitrogenous bases in DNA, hence there are
four different types of nucleotide found in it. They are Adenine, cytosine, thymine, and guanine.
DNA was discovered by Watson and Crick in 1953. James D Watson and Francis D Crick in 1953 suggested a model of DNA, which was based on X-ray diffraction data provided by Maurice H.F Willikins. For their pioneer work, all three scientists received the noble prize in 1962.Watson and Crick suggested the ladder-type organization of DNA. Each molecule of DNA is made up of two polynucleotide chains, which were twisted around each other and form a double helix. The uprights of helix are made up of sugar and phosphate part of nucleotide and the rungs are made up of paired nitrogenous bases. The pairs are always as follows;
Adenine always pairs with thymine and cytosine pairs with guanine. There is
no other alternative possible. Two polynucleotide chains that are complimentary to each other are held together by hydrogen bonds. There are two hydro

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