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Geology and Elements of Soil Mechanics (Essay Sample)

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i was required to highlight the significance of Gneiss, Granite, Chalk, and REdstone in construction while demonstrating my understanding of the their engineering properties. I was also supposed to analyse the ways in which the industrial activities, waste disposals and agricultural activities contaminated the aquifers. i was to go further and provide information that could be used to monitor the contamination Furthermore, I was supposed to highlight the subsidense hazards associated with foundations constructed with peat and chalk and suggest any preventive measures

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GEOLOGY AND ELEMENTS OF SOIL MECHANICS
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Geology and Elements of Soil Mechanics
Significance of Rocks in construction and their Engineering Properties
Unlike most metamorphic rocks gneiss rarely splits along its planes of weakness thus making it to be used in road construction as crushed stone, landscaping projects, and in building site preparations. Its commendable durability allows it to be used as a foundation stone. These rocks can go further to be sheared or sawn into slabs or blocks that can be used in a variety of buildings and pavingADDIN CSL_CITATION { "citationItems" : [ { "id" : "ITEM-1", "itemData" : { "DOI" : "10.1016/j.enggeo.2009.02.010", "ISBN" : "0013-7952", "ISSN" : "00137952", "abstract" : "Most constitutive models for unsaturated soils are based on identification of soil-water suction with the capillary component of the matrix potential, ignoring the contribution of adsorption to this potential. Identification of potential (energy per unit volume) with stress (or suction), is questioned, since these quantities have different physical significance despite their common dimensions. It is suggested that the identification of matrix potential with (ua - uw) results from neglecting the adsorption potential, and adopting an unrealistic pore space model. This identification was probably motivated by the laboratory axis translation technique, but it is not valid under normal field conditions where the air pressure is usually atmospheric, and soil water cannot develop high tension without cavitating. Axis translation alters soil behavior by preventing cavitation, thus casting doubt on the relevance of laboratory results obtained from these tests to actual field conditions. Specifically, in soils having large specific surface areas, there is a range of conditions, relevant to geotechnical engineering, in which capillary potential appears to account for only a small part of matrix potential, the major contribution resulting from water adsorption onto the soil particles. Consideration of a double porosity model and cavitation of water under the tension generated by capillary mechanism appear indispensable for the interpretation of unsaturated soil behavior. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.", "author" : [ { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Baker", "given" : "Rafael", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Frydman", "given" : "Sam", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" } ], "container-title" : "Engineering Geology", "id" : "ITEM-1", "issue" : "1-2", "issued" : { "date-parts" : [ [ "2009" ] ] }, "page" : "26-39", "title" : "Unsaturated soil mechanics. Critical review of physical foundations", "type" : "article-journal", "volume" : "106" }, "uris" : [ "/documents/?uuid=b4608230-f524-4e25-a48c-2201e5286b17" ] } ], "mendeley" : { "formattedCitation" : "(Baker & Frydman 2009)", "plainTextFormattedCitation" : "(Baker & Frydman 2009)", "previouslyFormattedCitation" : "(Baker & Frydman 2009)" }, "properties" : { "noteIndex" : 0 }, "schema" : "https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json" }(Baker & Frydman 2009). Some variety of gneiss may be used as architectural stone due to its attractiveness as a result of the bright polish. Most of the facing stones, floor tiles, window sills, and countertops are made from polished gneiss.
Granite is a volcanic rock that was formed as a result of cooling of the larva. Its properties make it ideal for use in the construction and engineering activities including its resistance to acids, abrasion resistance, very hard, and strong. It can also be polished to a mirror-like smoothness thus a making it a good choice for floor or countertop finishes. Its availability in dark colors tends to limit its use in certain areas. Its surface can be worked on to provide other textures other than its smoothness; tumbled, bush hammered, sand blasted, or water blastedADDIN CSL_CITATION { "citationItems" : [ { "id" : "ITEM-1", "itemData" : { "DOI" : "10.1016/0148-9062(93)92632-Z", "ISBN" : "9780444502605", "ISSN" : "1879-0291", "PMID" : "21601919", "abstract" : "Subsurface sediments from a pockmark area in South-Western Barents Sea have been earlier found to contain elevated levels of petroleum-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This work describes a comprehensive analysis of various biomarkers, including the highly source-specific hopanes, in a 4.5m long gravity core from the same area, together with subsurface sediment samples from other areas in the region without pockmarks present (\"background samples\"). A clear difference between the pockmark gravity core and the background sediment cores was found, both with regard to genesis and the level of transformation of organic matter. A number of indicator parameters, such as methylphenanthrene index (MPI-1), point towards a significantly higher maturity of hydrocarbons in the pockmark core throughout its length as compared to the other sampled locations. Higher contents of microbial hopanoids (hopenes) may indicate the former presence of petroleum. These findings confirm the hypothesis of a natural hydrocarbon source in the deeper strata present in the studied location with pockmarks.", "author" : [ { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Fjaer", "given" : "E", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Holt", "given" : "R M", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Horsrud", "given" : "P", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Raaen", "given" : "A M", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Risnes", "given" : "R", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" } ], "container-title" : "Marine Environmental Research", "id" : "ITEM-1", "issue" : "5", "issued" : { "date-parts" : [ [ "2011" ] ] }, "number-of-pages" : "357-68", "title" : "Petroleum Related Rock Mechanics", "type" : "book", "volume" : "71" }, "uris" : [ "/documents/?uuid=f3c9f67b-ca85-486c-b72e-5ab87e72deba" ] } ], "mendeley" : { "formattedCitation" : "(Fjaer et al. 2011)", "plainTextFormattedCitation" : "(Fjaer et al. 2011)", "previouslyFormattedCitation" : "(Fjaer et al. 2011)" }, "properties" : { "noteIndex" : 0 }, "schema" : "https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json" }(Fjaer et al. 2011). These rough finishes are mainly used on pathways or outdoors.
Chalks can be used as a natural construction material in constructing as it can be placed directly hydraulic-fill and placed fill structures. Upon been exposed to great heat it transforms to lime that can be used in the manufacturing of steel and in agricultureADDIN CSL_CITATION { "citationItems" : [ { "id" : "ITEM-1", "itemData" : { "DOI" : "10.2136/sssaj1976.03615995004000040003x", "ISBN" : "0471856401", "ISSN" : "0038-075X", "PMID" : "997", "abstract" : "Bonding, crystal structure, and surface charateristics; Soil mineralogy; Formation and soil deposits; Determination of soil composition; Soil water; Clay-water electrolyte system; Soil fabric and its measurement; Effective, integranular, and total stress; Soil composition and engineering properties; Soil structure-its formation, stability, and relationships to properties; Conduction phenomena; Volume change behavior; Strength and deformation behavior.", "author" : [ { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Mitchell", "given" : "James K", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Soga", "given" : "Kenichi", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" } ], "container-title" : "Soil Science Society of America Journal", "id" : "ITEM-1", "issue" : "4", "issued" : { "date-parts" : [ [ "2005" ] ] }, "number-of-pages" : "iv", "title" : "Fundamentals of Soil Behavior", "type" : "book", "volume" : "40" }, "uris" : [ "/documents/?uuid=f36f9c83-d08a-4c37-aeda-918e3ef6d392" ] } ], "mendeley" : { "formattedCitation" : "(Mitchell & Soga 2005)", "plainTextFormattedCitation" : "(Mitchell & Soga 2005)", "previouslyFormattedCitation" : "(Mitchell & Soga 2005)" }, "properties" : { "noteIndex" : 0 }, "schema" : "https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json" }(Mitchell & Soga 2005). Its properties allow it to be used as building stones as it has an aesthetic appearance. It is not used in building of foundations due to its reaction with water over time.
The red sandstone has a red color is as a result of iron oxide that has been imparted in its bedding planes. It is a hard wearing sandstone that is designed for a contemporary styling and conformity of color. Some of the characteristics that make it good for construction include; it has not shown any effects of weathering, high responsivity towards a variety of finishing like polishing, sandblasting, honing, and rubbing. Its decorating versatility is also not comparable to many rocks. It comes in a variety of sizes thus allowing for creativity in laying of the design. Its color ranges from light to dark red.
Owing to its strength, resistance to environmental weathering and abrasion, durability, resistance to alkali and acid and benefits of easy handling, and its ease of availability has made it one of the materials of choice for construction. It has a variety of application in paving, paneling, flooring, roofing, and in doors, and window sills. As a result of its excellent workability it is excellent for use in both interiors and exteriors.
Contamination of the Aquifers through Industrial Activities, Waste Disposal, and Agricultural Activities
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