Barbara Ehrenreich's Hierarchy,Customs & Standards of Jobs (Essay Sample)
This is WGSS midterm exam.
You need to read the textbook first, then answer questions.
There are 4 questions in the requirement,
Do question 1 and 4 each 850 words, totally 1700w
Put your answer below the questions, must follow the requirement below each question.
It is therefore recommended that you limit your responses to the aforementioned notes, Power Point lectures, and Nickel and Dimed text.
APA format, also need in-text citations.
1 How does this gender definition – concentrated on inequality – correspond to Barbara Ehrenreich’s characterization of various jobs in Nickel and Dimed?
Barbara Ehrenreich identified particular jobs based on the hierarchy of the jobs, customs and the standards set for the jobs. Based on Barbara's experience the social relationships are the main aspect of any work. Therefore, all Barbara’s jobs in relation to Nickel and Dimed were highly demanding especially of the physical labor as well as high ability to cause physical damage in the long term. The societal view shows illustrate that the way to success and out of poor conditions and welfare is through jobs, whereas, in Nickel and Dimed the way out of poverty is not securing a job. Moreover, women are considered to be passive as well as talented in their work, therefore, the work delivered is more likely to be of high quality since they provide a compliant workforce. Women are also assumed to be favored since they rarely engage in the demand for either labor or human rights. This is because there are multiple groups that are involved in aiding and ensuring that women are treated right in the workforce. Thus, unlike the masculinists, feminists are in a better position to work in conducive environments and deliver efficiently (Ehrenreich, 2010). On the other hand, division of labor based on gender especially in relation to the traditional labor divisions, feminists are considered to be caregiving. Hence, there are various jobs such as waitress that might suit a woman, unlike a man. Consequently, affective labor is also highly related to women since they are considered to be emotional beings. Therefore, the expectations of compliance of the feminists are dependent on the emotional state of an individual. Thus, women are more suitable in industries offering service products unlike those offering goods. Nevertheless, feminists are more likely to commit to informalized work that involves less or no particular rules and regulations.
Barbara’s contribution thus examines the gender-based analysis of the income obtained and the ways in which a worker is able to meet the expenses. Depending on the levels of income, it is restraining to obtain the health insurance facilities as well as healthy food. This is because based on Barbara’s analysis they are regarded as luxurious items due to the fact that when the wages are extremely low, the major basic needs are met and the secondary needs such as health are barely catered. Additionally, there is the aspect of limitations of the programs of welfare that is also led by the low wages paid. Due to the limited wages obtained, catering for services such as joining of beneficial groups and welfare programs that would benefit an individual, the fact that the available funds are already spent on the necessities, subscription fees would be an issue. Additionally, this continues to be the major cause of continues poverty since, the welfare programs aid in the improvement of living standards. Thirdly, the great recession led to the downturn of the economy for a period of approximately 2 years in the United States. The great recession led to increased levels of the financial crisis at the global level as well as the increase in the cost of housing. Therefore, workers that for an average of $6 to $9 dollars experienced a very hard blow since the cost of living was very high. In most cases, the individuals could not raise income that could readily meet their expenses.
2 How does Ehrenreich’s gendered analysis fail to account for globalization (specifically with regard to migrant/immigrant labor and outsourcing)?
In this paper, in relation to Nickel and Dimed globalization involves the transfer of resources, people and money across countries. Additionally, the aspect of globalization shows a connection with the gender that is characterized by the unequal distribution of resources, capital, and power in the masculinists or the feminists. Barbara Ehrenreich’s characterization of jobs fails to take into consideration the aspect of globalization. For instance, based on nickel and dimed, the feminization of labor that explains the rise in the number of women integrated into the wage labor market shows that there is a high possibility of having a high number of poor women in relation to the feminization of poverty. This is because there are about four million women booted in the market of labor with a salary of $6 to $7 per hour, which barely caters for rent. Moreover, in the world context of the feminization of labor, the masculinists have a higher likelihood of being incorporated unlike feminists (Winant, 2018, p67-79). However, Barbara's illustration fails to account for globalization because there is a rapid increase in the number of women that move abroad in search of labor. Additionally, the funds obtained in the foreign countries are sent back to the home country to cater to bills such as fees, rent, and other expenses. Moreover, in most cases, women migrate from one region to another in search of domestic labor. Another scenario that illustrates Barbara's analysis of gender has not taken into consideration the aspect of globalization, is on labor outsourcing. Since various companies prefer having some job functions carries out of the company, therefore, despite the low wages paid to women, there is a likelihood that they can obtain various job functions of companies that opting labor outsourcing. Hence, globalization can aid in boosting the income obtained by an individual despite the low wages obtained by women.
1 How is “affective labor” revealed in the final section (“Selling in Minnesota”)?
Affective labor explains the energy given due to emotions in a workplace scenario. The performance of a worker in any given organization is determined by the emotional state of the worker. Based on Nickel and Dimed, affective labor comes about in the aspect of the low wages paid to workers and how that affects their performance. There are reduced levels of performance brought about by the low wages. Thus, the implementation of tips and other forms of income would highly aid in boosting income and promoting the development of positive emotions in the workplace environment. Barbara’s describes that application of the tip law of credit operates to almost all the workers, especially the tipped workers there is a very high guarantee that the workers will go to their homes with approximately with the minimum wages set by the Federal authority. Therefore, if a worker that depends on the tips does not make enough tips that will cater to the expenses, hence, the lowest tipped worker and the minimum wage are set to be paid to the workers. Thus, Barbara’s said that she is in the favor increase of minimum wages in Minnesota to higher and better levels. Additionally, Barnabas greatly supports the issuance of the tip credit. Most specifically to the upcoming and small restaurants that are independent in nature since they experience the low margins of businesses. Moreover, in most restaurants, the servers and bartenders are at better pay since they already have more income in combined pay and tips received per hour compared to the most workers in the restaurant. It is important to note that without the tip credit that is issued to many workers who already earn the most would be earning at much-reduced levels of wages (Kelly, 2002, p208). For instance, if the tipped workers earn approximately $18 – $25 per hour there will receive an increase and the lowest-paid workers in the restaurant will receive little or no increase because those jobs are already being paid at least minimum wage.
2 What are the possibilities and limitations of emotion vis-à-vis the workplace?
Firstly, on the possibilities and the limitations of emotions in relation to the workplace environments on the inherent distrust that normally exists among the various working class that is mainly caused by the affluent. In this case, for instance, people can be hired to offer services such as cleaning and they obvious traps are left lying behind so that to clearly show how distrustful and disdainful the workers can be. However, when the workers are honest and trustworthy they might not fall for the traps especially money traps, hence, leading to a lot of mistreatment and disdain. Therefore, merely causing that there is the inability of the workers to carry out their responsibilities resentfully, hence, leading to si
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