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Mass Communication Media, CNN Effect, Arab Spring (Essay Sample)


Use of media in war


Mass Communication Media, CNN Effect, Arab Spring
Question 1: Carruthers (2011) writes: “political leaders generally take great pains to generate support for waging war, enlisting mass communications media to help bolster the case.” Is this necessarily true and, if so, how is such support generated?
Politics creates platforms for leaders to interact with both their opponents and their supporters. The rivalry and competition experienced in politics result in waging conflicts, which encourages the public to judge leaders and their roles in generating waging wars across various regions. Several alternatives can limit the reduction of blame games to politicians; however, the incorporation of mass communication media can simplify the achievement of a peaceful society and strong bonding between politicians and the public.. Politicians bear the pains of generating support for waging wars in various nations; nevertheless, social media's association in controlling and influencing the media can prevent the spread of such attitudes in the country.[Carruthers, Susan L. The media at war. Macmillan International Higher Education, 2011.]
Politicians indeed take great pains to generate support for waging wars, as stressed by Carruthers (2011). Besides, the writer's suggestions regarding the alternatives of reducing such struggles in the political arena are true following his preferences of engaging mass communication media. The history of media development exposes the mass communication medium to increased wars among media houses and the public. However, in this case, the history of media wars is significant for escalating the public's problems regarding the pressure and blames to politicians on rising wars in public.
Media are mostly owned and controlled by powerful people in the society; thus, enlisting communication media to raise wars facing politicians in the contemporary society can help create awareness to the public regarding the sources, effects, and solutions of particular challenges. The influential media owner has connection s and proper networking with politicians; such people can approach the leaders and request interviews, which will help society understand the sources of conflicts linked to politicking activities. Powerful owners control the channeling of interviews to media houses. As a result, Carruthers's quote is true because media owners' fluence on politicians is high/. The truth about all accusations and scandals linked to politicians can be known and understood as either right or wrong through communications with the affected politicians. The group cannot interact directly with the public and be answerable to all the charges linked. However, the incorporation of mass communication media connects populations to their leaders easily through interviews.
The peace journalism training also impacts the views of the masses on political blames on elected leaders. The rivals between politicians can be sorted through mass communication media that offer peace journal training and development programs. The objectives of peace journalism training are to establish a remedy to propaganda-driven mainstream media. In this instance, Carruthers is right because the only way to know the truth is through communication. Mass communication media will help politicians gain pains caused by waging wars linked to their professions through the provision of alternatives to propaganda-driven topics.
Question 2: In media studies, the "CNN Effect" is traced to the 1990s, and the advent of 24-hour live global broadcasting. What is the "CNN effect," and is it still evident in 2020? If so, how has it changed since the 1990s?
The CNN effect is a theory that held that twenty-four-hour (24-hour) news networks influence the general economic, social, and political climate across different parts of the world. The CNN effect reasons based and the principle of media in narrowing particular effects and events over prolonged periods. The ability of media houses to cover and airing activities over given periods provides outlets for the public enhances the masses in mastering and familiarizing with trending issues in the society.. The CNN effect affects companies' market values based on the awareness of clients and customers on specific products and services aired on 24-hours airing systems. The CNN effect is evident in 2020 based on the influences of media, print, radios, and social media in affecting the public's mentality on popular culture and human behaviors.[Lynch, Marc. "Twitter Devolutions: How social media is hurting the Arab Spring." Foreign Policy 7, (2013).] [Hawkins, Virgil. "Media selectivity and the other side of the CNN effect: The consequences of not paying attention to the conflict." Media, War & Conflict 4, no. 1 (2011): 55-68.]
Understanding the CNN effect corners organizations and individuals in acting aggressively towards various subject matters at workplaces and the country at large. A relevant example of the CNN effect today constitutes the withdrawal of investors from bank stocks or moving of deposits out of banks linked to turmoil in the banking sector. The wider financial crisis created by investors' actions to particular bank stocks change the cycling of news in the finance institutes; thus, affecting the economic sector. The CNN effect causes overactions in the market mix due to the continuous flow of information regarding product values, ethical topics, and political ambitions and roles of leaders in real-time sequences. The constant supply of information on the 24-hour scale on media originates from the CN effect; the transfer approach from media houses to the public cable news to masses leads to transference and receiving of real-time news. The economy shapes following the interests and abilities of social media, organizational sites, and media houses in channeling real-time information to the public.[Kogen, Lauren, and Monroe E. Price. "Deflecting the CNN effect: public opinion polling and Livingstonian outcomes." Media, War & Conflict 4, no. 2 (2011): 109-123.]
The CNN effect has changed today when compared to its influence and efficiency in the 1990s. The CNN effect contextualizes television news in modern society, unlike in the 1990s when the effect was felt through visual pictorial, news, and prints in a few media houses. The CNN effect was named after a television broadcasting house in the 1990s following CNN television's ability to operate for lengthy hours in reaching the public on various issues. The terminology is enjoyed today as a basic principle of awareness creation. All media houses link and associate with the public through real-time updates of trending issues and breaking news across the world. Technological advancements have changed the CNN effect and how it impacts media. Media are currently live streaming events, programs, and meetings on social media websites, and the domain media shows on televisions. Unlike in the 1990s, today CNN effect has changed through live streaming links and apps of similar media houses. In the past, the CNN effect was felt on live tv, and it occurred on a few media platforms.[Lynch, Marc. "After the Arab spring: How the media trashed the transitions." Journal of Democracy 26, no. 4 (2015): 90-99.] [Seib, Philip. The Al Jazeera effect: How the new global media are reshaping world politics. Potomac Books, Inc., 2008.]
The long distanced televised communications experienced in the 1990s are currently simplified with modernized technology and software that enhance information transfer from media houses to a target audience over shorter periods. News quickly spreads in modern society based on the modernized technology implemented in the transference of information from media houses and social media platforms.
Question 3: Social media is consistently cited as a catalyst of the Arab Spring. Is this true? Was social media a: 1) necessary condition; 2) sufficient condition; 3) neither?
The Arab Spring was the series of anti-government protests, armed rebellions, and protests that spread across the Arab world in 2010. The protests began with the response to oppressive regimes and low living standards in Arab countries. The onset of the Arab Spring protest began in Tunisia before spreading to Bahrain, Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Libya. Arab Spring facilitated major uprisings and increased social violence of different natures like riots, civil wars, and insurgencies in the five countries during its onset. Arab Spring resulted in street demonstrations in Khuzestan, Iran, Algeria, Morocco, and Iraq. The revolution’s slogan revolved around, bringing down the regime. Internal and external factors facilitated the success of the contests. However, the emergence of the media in the protests catalyzed the riots across Arab countries.
Social media is consistently cited as a catalyst of the Arab Springs based on the government's reaction to media houses and websites in the early 2010s. The government shut down social media sites and blocked internet services entirely with the fears that social media is the catalyst for the widespread protests and riots witnessed in Arab countries. Arab governments denied the airing of major rallies on live media because they believed the media was the number one enemy of the government in stopping the Arab Spring. Social media played a crucial role in coordinating communications between Arab countries and protesting groups; thus, the government feared its engagement in airing the progress of such protests. The feedback of the Arab Spring riots aired through social media promoted other countries' active engagement in a street ...

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