Liberals And Conservatives Writing Assignment Paper (Essay Sample)
the paper outlines the historical factors that influenced the emergence of liberals and conservatives in the U.ssource..
LIBERALS AND CONSERVATIVES
The world that was influenced by European thought during the 19th century has the terms liberal and conservative in their political history. The time was marked by change that drew a contrast between those who wanted reforms in reduction of church privileges, democracy, landed aristocracy and royalty against those who were inclined to protect the traditional values of the society.
According to arguments posited by early conservatists like Burke, social institutions are a kind of capital. They viewed capital as having specific properties like social arrangements and thought patterns that are passed down through generations. They argued that the capital is tacit in nature and cannot be rationally analysed. Conservatism in the 19th century tolerated incremental reforms but was against systemic questioning of the social order. The main goal of conservatism was to conserve established institutions. Conservatives introduces policies that were aimed at conserving institutions that reinforced their power such as the aristocracy.
In the 19th century society as in all the societies that followed, the ardent supporters of conservatism are the privileged group in society. During the 19th century the hereditary landed aristocracy were the most ardent adherents of conservatism. Conservatism argued that society should be organized in a hierarchy of orders and classes that would be controlled by the aristocracy who are at the uppermost hierarchical stratum. Later the 19th century privileged industrial leadership joined conservatives calling for the status quo. The goal of conservatism was to maintain power to the privileged few at the expense of the masses.
Conservatism has been known to constantly change when it comes to freedom. It always adapts itself to provide the minimum amount of freedom necessary to form a dominant coalition in the society. During the 19th century conservatism created a coalition between traditional social authorities and the emerging business class.
The conservatives believed that freedom was impossible unless the common man accepted the domination of aristocracy. The domination of aristocracy was the main agenda of conservatism. The violent, uprooting and untraditional methods of the French revolution gave conservatives a chance to restore pre-revolutionary ideals.
The rise of liberalism to become a preeminent reform movement in Europe varied with historical conditions in each country, the pace of industrialization, the strength of the aristocracy and the diverse circumstances of national unification. It was evident that the character and goals of the liberal movement was also affected by religion. For instance liberals in Italy, France and Spain had the tendency to favour legislation that was aimed at restricting political power and civil authority of the catholic clergy.
The influence of the Whigs in the mid-19th Century was a powerful force for liberalism. The party
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