12 pages/≈3300 words
Tourism and Leisure Marketing (Essay Sample)
Benefits of Tourism to the Host Communities
Benefits of Tourism to the Host Communities
Tourism is a synthesis of various activities including accommodation, transport sector, hospitality and the entertainment sectors. Therefore, tourism and all its functions are closely related to infrastructural development in the respective areas. Tourism is a large sector that greatly contributes to economic, social and cultural development. Nelson defines tourism as a set of socioeconomic activities carried out either for or by the tourists.[Dr. Nelson, Robert. Handout for the Session Impacts of Tourism on Host Communities, Executive MBA Program, 2005]
The major rationale of promoting tourism in the developing countries has been to earn for foreign exchange. Tourism also creates avenues for employment opportunities. Therefore, tourism is a potential instrument for eliminating poverty, promoting dialogue among the citizens and ending unemployment. Tourism plays a significant role in the socioeconomic development of most communities across the globe. Tourism comes with a number of impacts which could be broadly categorized under social, economic, political and cultural impacts. These impacts, according to Nelson could either be positive or negative.[Dr. Nelson, Handout, 2005.]
The most significant economic impact of tourism to a community is the creation of employment opportunities. According to Holloway and Robinson, the money brought into a region by tourists enhances the establishment of small business enterprises, promoting a positive image of the subject areas. The tourism activities transfer large sums of money from the developed nations to the less developed ones. Therefore, it can be asserted that tourism is a source of income to the immediate communities because the amount of money brought by tourists trickles down to the lowest levels of the community. A tourist makes the preliminary expenditures into the society, which is in most instances received as income by the local people who act as tour guides, shopkeepers, hoteliers, and taxi drivers.[Holloway & Robinson. "Marketing for tourism", Longman: Harlow, UK,1995]
The money spent by tourists multiplies than the original spending as income. The multiplier effect of international tourism manifests itself as employment, sales, income or output multipliers. Other than being a source of day to day income, tourism is a source of foreign exchange. Mill notes that tourism in India and the South of Sahara is a significant source of foreign exchange to the countries. As compared to exportation, tourism serves as a better source of foreign exchange since the countries are less developed industrially. Mill notes that tourism in India and the South of Africa contributes to over 10% of the total foreign exchange collected.[Mill, R. C. & Morrison, A. M, "The tourism system: an introductory text", Prentice Hall International: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA, 1992, p. 52]
Generation of employment is yet another economic effect of tourism on the community. Inskeep notes that the tourism industry is highly labor intensive, thereby proving to be an invaluable source of employment to the immediate community. A number of businesses are established and tend to flourish because of tourism. For example, motels, hotels, transport agencies, restaurants, tour operators, curio shops, and rickshaw drivers are some of the many jobs created by the tourism activities.[Inskeep, Edward, "Tourism planning: an integrated and sustainable development approach", Van Nostrand Reinhold: New York. 2013, p. 25]
Through tourism, a large number of people are employed to provide a range of services. In most cases, the services are required from the semi-skilled and the unskilled individuals. Only a portion of the services and jobs in the tourism industry require highly-skilled personnel. Support industries and services are developed because of tourism. Examples of support industries include entertainment, food service, accommodation, and automobile. Tourism allows infrastructural development such as the establishment of roads, hospitals, and show grounds among other social public amenities. The rise of infrastructural development enhances the growth of the private sector.[Mills & Morrison, The Tourism, 52]
According to Mill and Morrison, tourism is among the fastest growing industry globally with multiple activities. The inputs in the tourism industry provide the basis for traders to expand their businesses or launch new products. Therefore, tourism increases investment opportunities. The tourism industry plays a significant role in poverty reduction5. Tourism promotes handicrafts too and literacy. Through tourism, the societal attitudes towards education changes and courses such as hotel management, food nutrition, and fashion design are broadly offered. Tourism also has a number of social and cultural impacts to the community. However, the impacts are dependent on the culture and way of life of the host communities. The interaction that arises between the hosts and tourists might change the local traditions, customs and standards.[Mill, R. C. & Morrison, A. M, "The tourism system: an introductory text", Prentice Hall International: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA, 1992] [Dr. Nelson, Robert. Handout for the Session Impacts of Tourism on Host Communities. Executive MBA Program, 2005]
Nelson writes that the interaction between people from diverse backgrounds with different ways of life tends to modify the lifestyles of the host communities. It is possible that the mix between tourists and the hosts improves the lives of the locals through upraised infrastructure required to sustain tourism. Better education associated with tourism changes the primitive thinking that some societies hold. For example, in the instance where the people do not believe in medicine because of culture, education has the potential of changing such a belief. Tourism also promotes the cultural practices of the host community through social events such as entertainment and exhibitions. Tourists enjoy viewing the local dances and traditional ceremonies. Therefore, the tourism industry not only boasts the culture of a community but also improves sports and leisure facilities.[Robert, Handouts, 52] [Mill & Morrison. The Tourism,]
Tourism promotes societal and national cohesion where the opportunities of youth exchange programs, home swap programs and village tourism and developed. Scenery vista appeals to tourists whether natural or man-made. The term environment in respect to tourism includes mountain ranges, historic sites, coastal cities, cultural sites, villages, pictures and national monuments. These features provide a stimulus for travelling. The effect of tourism to the environment presents itself positively. The local communities tend to conserve these tourist sites because of the associated economic and social benefits. Therefore, the environment is protected.
Tourism activities transfer large sums of money from the developed nations to the less developed ones. Therefore, it can be asserted that tourism is a source of income to the immediate communities because the amount of money brought by tourists trickles down to the lowest levels of the community. A tourist makes the preliminary expenditures into the society, which is in most instances received as income by the local people who act as tour guides, shopkeepers, hoteliers, and taxi drivers. A number of businesses are established and tend to flourish because of tourism. For example, motels, hotels, transport agencies, restaurants, tour operators, curio shops, and rickshaw drivers are some of the many jobs created by the tourism activities.[Dr. Nelson, Robert. Handout for the Session Impacts of Tourism on Host Communities. Executive MBA Program. 2005]
Pressure groups that advocate for conservation of natural ecosystems agitate for the allocation of funds to preserve the environment. These funds being agitated for come from the tourism industry. According to Mathieson and Wall, environment tends to be conserved where the local community is largely involved in the tourism industry.[King, D. and Stewart, W. â€˜Ecotourism and commodification: Protecting people and placesâ€™, Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 5, 1996, pp. 293-305.]
Other than the social, economic and environmental impacts, tourism also has positive cultural effects on the host community. Tourism has the potential to maximize the accessibility of the current cultural resources. Through tourism, people are trained to serve as interpreters of the areaâ€™s cultural heritage.
The foreign culture of the tourist might sometimes be uncomfortable to the host community. However, this uncomfortable situation could be tolerated and, therefore, promote peace and cohesion. Most tourists come from the Western European countries which have very little cultural identification or practices. The mode of dressing and general conduct that these tourists hold is in most instances, a contradiction to what the local communities of Africa and Asia believe. The result of these different cultures is cultural collision as it might take long before the tourists adapt to the norms of the host community.[Mathieson, A. & Wall, G., "Tourism: economic, physical and social impacts", Longman: Harlow, UK., 1982]
The positive and negative effects on the communityâ€™s cultural principles are largely a function of carrying capacity. Simoni and Mihai define carrying capacity as a measure of renewable that can comfortably sustain the lives of the organisms living in a particular environment7. To assist the visiting tourists appreciate the natural environment is by creating awareness of the significance of these resources. Sensory features such as sounds, smells, and sights must be preserved if...
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