12 pages/≈3300 words
Nepal Earthquake (Essay Sample)
Discuss Nepal earthquake of 2015source..
The 2015 Nepal Earthquake
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Q1. Description of the Nepal earthquake in 2015 and its management
Nepal is located in the centre of the Himalayan concave chain and is nearly rectangular shaped. Nepal has experienced earthquake shocks in the previous years, for instance; in 1934, Nepal was hit by the worst earthquake that left thousands of people dead and others displaced. Nepal earthquake of 2015 was a major tremor that occurred on two phases and left thousands of people dead and thousands homeless. The first phase happened on 25th April 2015, whereas, the second phase happened on 12th may 2015.The first phase of April 2015 Nepal earthquake happened at around 11:56 am NST and struck the area between Kathmandu and Pokhara (Mitra et al, 2015). According to the United State Geological Survey, the earthquake originally had a magnitude7.5 which later upgraded to 7.8 (Gov.UK, 2015). The earthquake epicentre was 77km north-west of Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. This was the most powerful natural disaster to strike Nepal since 1934 Nepal-Bihar earthquake. The Nepal-Bihar earthquake had a magnitude of 8.1. The United State Geological Survey asserts that tremor was caused by sudden thrust along the major fault line of the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The intensity in Kathmandu was IX, which was violent in nature (Aydan&Ulusay, 2015).
The April 25th Nepal earthquake triggered a major avalanche on the slope of Mount Everest killing some people and left others injured. The earthquake also triggered an enormous avalanche in the Langtang valley, where nearly 250 people went missing. In addition, the old building and monument at UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the Kathmandu Valley were also brought down by the strong earthquake shocks that struck Nepal in 2015. The April Nepal earthquake experienced aftershock of a magnitude of 6.7 on 26th April 2015. It had an epicentre situated 17 km south of Kodari, Nepal. The death toll rose to approximately eight thousand people and left thousands homeless (Gov.UK, 2015)
The second phase of Nepal 2015 earthquake tremor took place on 12th may 2015. The earthquake occurred weeks later after the phase had taken place. The earthquake destroyed the buildings and other monument that had survived the previous earthquake. It happened at 12:50 pm local time with a moment magnitude of 7.3, it took place18 kilometres south-east of Kodari. The earthquake befell on the same fault line far east than the initial tremor in April. The Nepal Army together with Indian Army continued its Operation SankatMochan to aid relief and rescue mission to the stranded population (Mitra et al, 2015). In totality, the earthquake shocks killed approximately more than eight thousand people and destroying a half a million homes nationwide.
In the management of Nepal earthquake 2015, Nepalese Army was sent in the areas that had been struck by the earthquake together with the volunteers from other parts of the country, under Operation SankatMochan. India being Nepal's immediate neighbour was the first to respond to the earthquake that struck Nepal, with Operation Maitri by the armed forces which offered rescue and relief to its own citizen and other people of other country who were stranded. The United Kingdom was also charitable in helping Nepal following the 2015 earthquake by contribution largest aid to support the country and the affected communities at large. The UK government increased its support by offering shelter, food and water to the victims of Nepal 2015 earthquake (Gov.UK, 2015). The United State, China and other nations took part in providing helicopters for a rescue mission for the stranded people in the rubble. The Nepalese government had requested for helicopters assistance from other nationals for the evacuation process.
On May 1st, evacuation of the critically injured person was started by international aid agencies such as Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors without borders) and the Red Cross. The international aid agencies made mobile camps where they offered medication to individuals who had minor injuries. Emergency workers were also able to identify and rescue the people who were trapped in the rubble. Emergency workers were venerable in disaster management because of their intense commitments and emotional involvement (Emergency Management Australia, 2003). The emergency workers used heartbeat detection to identify the trapped persons.
World Health Organisation and health partners have also taken part in the management of the catastrophic event of Nepal 2015 earthquake by helping the government to resume its services in rebuilding the damaged and destroyed health facility. Furthermore, they started rehabilitation centres for spinal and orthopaedic injuries (World Health Organisation, 2015). British aid also provided vital shelter kits that assist thousands of families and communities that were left homeless following the Nepal 2015 earthquake.
The community also had a role in disaster management by being ethical during and after the disaster took place. Communities depict ethics during the recovery period through positive conducts and the moral judgement that help restore the mind of the people who were affected in the catastrophic event (Lateef, 2011),
After the aftermath of the earthquake, the government set long-term policy and strategy on disaster management that is, Nepal Earthquake Recovery Appeal (NERA) 2015 that directs donations on small non-governmental organisations and the upcoming organisation that help create a network on the relief effort through channel of funds and exchange of information (Marston, 2015). Generally, small grassroots organisation offer support in rebuilding the communities that had been hit by Nepal 2015 earthquake by providing food, healthcare, sanitation and shelter.
Disaster management should include administrative decisions and operational International risk management standards which provide a set of principles, frameworks and processes to enhance ways individuals and organisations manage risk. It requires an individual or an organisation to work smarter in dealing with a disaster which posts a lot of challenges when they occur. In Nepal, the principles of disaster management were not excepted from been used. They were applied before, during and after the earthquake occurred.
A disaster can be prepared for before it happens. According to(Lateef, 2011) preventive ethics, for instance, preparedness is a basic tool to manage a situation.The readiness can be achieved from different angles. First perspective is through offering educational training (Lateef, 2011). This training is commonly adequate if realistic scenarios are encouraged. In Nepal, 2015 earthquake was not the first one to happen. There were scenarios Nepalese government would have learnt from. (Gibson & Tarrant, 2010) added by saying that being prepared will give an individual the ability to recognise precedence, what is happening and foresight what could probably occur. A person who is prepared can manage to identify early warning indicators and analyse possible options to deal with it. Secondly, the occurrence of an earthquake does not happen overnight. There are signs that are evident or which can be seen and these make pre- predictionspossible. Meteorologists do help in preparedness by studying the weather. Through their studying process, they can be able to predict the future outcome thus posting early warnings. According to (Bradtet el., 2009), disaster warnings should be communicated clearly through normal vulnerability channels and in a suitable manner to enhance understanding. In Nepal, seismic geologists had warned on the oncoming earthquake. They had even pinpointed the exact zone where it would take place( Petroff& Rooney, 2015). Nepal Government preparedness measures though not fully. Through preparedness, effective decisions are made thus minimising the mortality rate and maximising the available resources.
According to Emergency Management Australia (2003) , coordination is necessary for managing a disaster.This brings in working harmony under one command to achieve one goal of controlling the situation. Goyet (2000) suggested that affected regions appreciate the external assistance which does a lot of good to them. This is clearly seen in Nepal where many government agencies, companies and non-profit organisations sent their assistance aid. According to (Petroff&Rooney, 2015) Facebook came up with Safety Check tools urging Nepal residents to click in letting their friends know they are okay. Google revived the person finder tools which would enable people to post missing persons from Nepal. Microsoft also participated by offering free Skype calls in and out of Nepal. Nepalese Army was sent in the area together with Humanitarians from all over the word, under Operation SankatMochan. Operation Maitri, from India, offered rescue and relief not only to its citizens but also to other national citizens. Rescue mission helicopters came from the United States and China as per the request of the Nepal government.
Medical field did participate in Nepal earthquake management. Qualified and experienced medical personnel were sent to the affected zone of Nepal to provide best medical services to those affected either directly or indirectly. One of the main objective of medicalpersonnel during disaster, is to respond quickly when an emergencyoccur. They attending to the victims and offering them quickmedical care that saves life (Gunn &Masellis, 1996). The personnel in Nepal operated under some principles and harmony. One of the principles is that of Mellissa &Gunn who assert that Clinical information systems are essential to understanding patient flow and to improving operational efficiency. Furthermore, these medical practitioners should be ...
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