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Communication theories (Essay Sample)

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the paper was about \"describe the various communication theories\". paper type: MLA Reference: 3 No of pages: 4

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Communication theories
Introduction
Communication is the conveyance of information. Communication is a critical aspect for human existence. Communications could be formal and informal. Irrespective of the nature of communication, one has to sieve information that comes across them. Media is a vital tool in communication, which could both be beneficial and harmful at the same time.
Question one
Mass communication theories have varied from the nineteenth century to the current. Mass communication varied as large factories, and urban centers were developed. Traditional mass communication theorists blamed industrialization as being responsible for disrupting peaceful, rural communities and forcing people to live in slum areas in order to work in large factories. As a result, mass media symbolized everything wrong with the urban life in the 19th century (Baran & Davis, 28).
Media was seen as being responsible for potent criticism, political unrest and subversion of crucial cultural norms. Influence of the media over time was by some elites who wanted to maintain their political order, and others wanting to impose social changes through political revolutions.
Many intense political wrangles affected in a massive way, the thinking about mass media. Those conflicts shaped the development of mass media. The influence of media in the current and future is that, media can be responsible for subverting social order. A good example is the recent occurrence witnessed in western African countries, such as Tunisia. All the same, media are also seen as a latent solution to the disorder they bring about. Media will continue influence the political arena, especially with the technological advancement of social media.
Question two
Industrialization and urbanization were a turbulent era in the world history, characterizing an enormous social change. Rapid dissemination of new forms of technology made it possible to achieve most of this change. However, technological advances happened with little consideration for its social and environmental impacts. New elites emerged with the emergence of every social change, which was a challenge to the power of existing elite. In the late 1800, social control was wielded by a few industrial entrepreneurs; responsible for monopoly creation through exploitation of natural resources (Baran & Davis, 36). These people were feared, and some were denounced as robbers since they used dubious trade practices to amass wealth. The social change brought along the progression though high prices were paid for such change. Workers were ill-treated, urban slums emerged, and vast tracks of backwoods were ruined.
Media was among the technologies that shaped the modern era. For an industrial order to be maintained by then, there was the need for fast and efficient distribution of information. The new media like telegraphs and telephone was first acquired by the media and later by the public (Baran & Davis, 34).
How mass society fitting today is characterized by observance to empiricist and positivist epistemologies of the media. Media is able to extend the democratic process through views circulation. In the present, the media are assumed capable of providing transparent reflection of reality since language is transparent. Reflection could be a reflection of events (news), popular culture or morality and art in reflected by film and literature. All individuals are deemed to have the same opportunity for observation in the current media.
Question three
Propaganda theory involves the no-holds- banned use of communication to propagate particular beliefs and anticipations. The goal of propaganda theory is changing the way people act and leave them to believe such actions are voluntary, and the opinions underlying the newly adopted decisions are their own. Propagandists first change the way people envisage themselves and their social world (Baran & Davis, 78).
Lasseell’s theory of propaganda blends ideas from behaviorism and Freudianism pessimistic visions of media, and their position in forging modern social orders. Lasswell advocates that the power of propaganda is not the result of substance or appeal of certain messages, but it is a result of vulnerability of minds of moderate people. According to him, escalating depression and fiscal despair induce widespread fixation, which makes most people susceptible to even crude forms of propaganda (Baran & Davis, 87). Average Individuals turn to propaganda for reassurance, whenever confronted by powerful threats in their personal lives. He further says that, democracy has fatal laws, as it seeks to locate truths and make choices through openly conducted debates.
The institute of propaganda advocated for a democratic propaganda, which could be used to combat the skepticism generated by propaganda analysis. Since people are gullible and systematically manipulated, they need reassurance from the elite experts who understand the propaganda phenomenon, and develop concepts to deal with it. According to the institute, people need to be subjected to good propaganda (Baran & Davis, 89).
Question four
Normative theory of social responsibility is a modification of the free press theory, placing considerable emphasis upon media accountability to the society. The theory advocates that media are free, and thus should accept responsibilities to serve the public interest. This means ensuring compliance with these responsibilities through self regulation or public intervention.
Major aspects of normative theory of social responsibility are the different traditions in the diverse socio cultural contexts, just like there are different traditions of democracy in different cultures. Africa and Asia regions may develop their own normative traditions of demographic public communications in forms, which are different from those of the Western tradition. The role of normative theory is to explain a deeper philosophical ground for phi...
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