Cultural chronology of the Willamette and Southern Valleys
The Willamette and the southern Valley is bounded by Coast Range on the west and Cascade Range on the east. It is a level alluvial plain with scattered groups of hills of basalt. The climate of the valley, however, is characterized mild dry summers as well as wet winters. This kind of climate together with the fertile soil that is found within the valley is one of the characteristics that make it very rich for agricultural production in the region. Traditionally, the cultures of the Willamette and the Southern Valley is varied, taking into account the different environments within the region, coupled with different social factors that have chained the course of development (Jefferson Historical Quarterly n.p). In other words, it can be stated that forces that contributed to shape these people have also operated on some other people hence similarities at the moment with other places, both far and near. It can be thus proper to place the culture of the Oregon people into various comparative contexts in order that the ways in which these people relate to and resemble others in the northern hemisphere can be established.
Phases and their characteristics
The earliest periods that has been assumed that the place was occupied is the explained well with the fluted points of the Clovis. In fact, one occupancy in the early days were reported in Umpqua river, and yet another was found within the vicinity of the upper part of the Butte Creek and yet another near the border of California. After the Clovis occupation of the region, there were four cultural faces with the first three of these periods being when dart and atlatl were being used while the last period being when arrows and bows were introduced.
The Applegate phase
Existed between 10500 to 8500 years ago and was characterized with broad-stemmed point raminiscent of the Windust type that originated from the plateau. At the same time, there were the short pentagonal points that were broad-based which were locally in nature. However, the definition of this phase is on very little evidence and hence the need for further research to complement that which has this far been done for completeness (Erlandson & Todd pp. 2-4). The artefact recovered in Applegate river sites exposed almost 80 spear-points which are associated with the early times. These were characterized with triangular blades and broad stems which are similar to those of the Windust type as mentioned earlier. Other tools associated with the site include hide-working tools, cutting tools and flake stone scrapers just to mention but a few. At the same time, in association with these artefacts, decomposed and crushed bones were also discovered and it is due to this that associated the people who lived in this place with hunters and gatherers. Moreover, the piles of stones discovered in this site is an indication that earlier inhabitants might have cleared the surrounding to be used for other purposes.
The Marial Phase,
This phase can be traced between 8500 to 4500 years, being marked with willow-leaf bipoints. These were considered quite large with the earlier times that they existed but at the moment, they have become quite smaller. There were also broad broad-necked points that had straight base also formed characteristics of the tools that were associated with the period. All these had analogues in the Rabbit Island and the second one being in the Northern side (Balzer pp. 5-7). The food commodities that were identified in this site included the freshwater mussels, beaver and otter, which are all found along the river. On the other hand, oaks, pines as well as manzanita were on the hills while deer, elk, rabbit, squirrels and bears amongst others occupied the woods within the region. It is this portrayed richness of the site that helps to give a direction that the site was fit for residential purposes.
The Coquille Phase
Occurred between 4500 to 2200 years ago and was marked with diamond-shaped points that were short, with a broad stem (Erlandson & Todd pp. 1-3). At the present, such have been characterized by both small and medium willow-leaf points
The Rogue Phase
This period occurred between 2200-150 y...