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A Cultural Chronology Of The Willamette And Southern Valleys (Essay Sample)


cultural sequence: making of the stone tools is one of the activities that accompanied the cultural sequence, simply by the existence of small flakes that occurred in pockets within almost all the sites available then. At the same time, most of the economic activities of the people that lived in these periods on the sites depended in one way or the other on hunting and agriculture for their livelihood. In fact, agriculture has been shown by the richness of the valley from the various phases mentioned above.


Cultural chronology of the Willamette and Southern Valleys
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The Willamette and the southern Valley is bounded by Coast Range on the west and Cascade Range on the east. It is a level alluvial plain with scattered groups of hills of basalt. The climate of the valley, however, is characterized mild dry summers as well as wet winters. This kind of climate together with the fertile soil that is found within the valley is one of the characteristics that make it very rich for agricultural production in the region. Traditionally, the cultures of the Willamette and the Southern Valley is varied, taking into account the different environments within the region, coupled with different social factors that have chained the course of development (Jefferson Historical Quarterly n.p). In other words, it can be stated that forces that contributed to shape these people have also operated on some other people hence similarities at the moment with other places, both far and near. It can be thus proper to place the culture of the Oregon people into various comparative contexts in order that the ways in which these people relate to and resemble others in the northern hemisphere can be established. 

Phases and their characteristics
The earliest periods that has been assumed that the place was occupied is the explained well with the fluted points of the Clovis. In fact, one occupancy in the early days were reported in Umpqua river, and yet another was found within the vicinity of the upper part of the Butte Creek and yet another near the border of California. After the Clovis occupation of the region, there were four cultural faces with the first three of these periods being when dart and atlatl were being used while the last period being when arrows and bows were introduced.
The Applegate phase
Existed between 10500 to 8500 years ago and was characterized with broad-stemmed point raminiscent of the Windust type that originated from the plateau. At the same time, there were the short pentagonal points that were broad-based which were locally in nature. However, the definition of this phase is on very little evidence and hence the need for further research to complement that which has this far been done for completeness (Erlandson & Todd pp. 2-4). The artefact recovered in Applegate river sites exposed almost 80 spear-points which are associated with the early times. These were characterized with triangular blades and broad stems which are similar to those of the Windust type as mentioned earlier. Other tools associated with the site include hide-working tools, cutting tools and flake stone scrapers just to mention but a few. At the same time, in association with these artefacts, decomposed and cru

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