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Difference Between DNA And RNA Lab Report Assignment (Lab Report Sample)


THIS SAMPLE WAS A PAPER ON LAB REPORT BASED ON THE BIOLOGY laboratory Practical regarding the topic of genetics with specific reference to DNA AND RNA.

Difference between DNA And RNA.




A nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms

Single-stranded chain of alternating phosphate and ribose units with the bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil bonded to the ribose. RNA molecules are involved in protein synthesis and sometimes in the transmission of genetic information

Abbreviation stands for:




Found in nucleus 2. sugar is deoxyribose 3. Bases are A,T,C,G

Found in nucleus and cytoplasm 2.sugar is ribose. 3. Bases are A,U,C,G

Bases and sugars

DNA is a long polymer with a deoxyribose and phosphate backbone and four different bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine

RNA is a polymer with a ribose and phosphate backbone and four different bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil


Medium of long-term storage and transmission of genetic information

Transfers the genetic code need for the creation of proteins from the nucleus to the ribosome. This process prevents the DNA from having to leave the nucleus, so it stays safe.

Predominant structure

Typically a double- stranded molecule with a long chain of nucleotides

A single-stranded molecule in most of its biological roles and has a shorter chain of nucleotides

Pairing of bases

A-T(Adenine-Thymine), G-C(Guanine-Cytosine)

A-U(Adenine-Uracil), G-C(Guanine-Cytosine


Deoxyribose sugar in DNA is less reactive because of C-H bonds. Stable in alkaline conditions. DNA has smaller grooves where the damaging enzyme can attach which makes it harder for the enzyme to attack DNA

Ribose sugar is more reactive because of C-OH (hydroxyl) bonds. Not stable in alkaline conditions. RNA on the other hand has larger grooves which make it easier to be attacked by enzymes.

Unique features

The helix geometry of DNA is of B-Form. DNA is completely protected by the body i.e. the body destroys enzymes that cleave DNA. DNA can be damaged by exposure to Ultra-violet rays

The helix geometry of RNA is of A-Form. RNA strands are continually made, broken down and reused. RNA is more resistant to damage by Ultra-violet rays.

* Structure of nucleotide: Either RNA or DNA a phosphate group and a base (adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine for DNA or uracil for RNA)
* DNA’s 4 nucleotides consist of:
* Adenine,
* Cytosine,
* Guanine,
* Thymine
* Pairing of the DNA nucleotides occurs through ester bonding between carbon 2' to another nucleotide's phosphate group.
* DNA replication is the process by which DNA makes a copy of itself during cell division.
* Semi-conservative refers to; DNA replication which results in two DNA molecules consisting of one new and one old chain of nucleotides; half of the chain is part of the original DNA molecule, while the other half is brand new.
The 3 steps to DNA replication are:
* Unzipping of the double strand helix structure of the DNA molecule results in two stands i.e leading strand and the lagging strand.
* Once all of the bases are matched up (A with T, C with G), an enzyme called exonuclease strips away the primers. The gaps where the primers were are then filled by yet more complementary nucleotides.
* The new strand is proofread to make sure there are no mistakes in the new DNA sequence. Finally, an enzyme called DNA ligase seals up the sequence of DNA into two continuous double strands.
Transcription; refers to the production of messenger RNA (mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase, and the processing of the resulting mRNA molecule.
Translation: the use of mRNA to direct protein synthesis, and the subsequent post-translational processing of the protein molecule.
Below are the significance of each of the molecules in gene expression:
¯ DNA:  Medium of long-term storage and transmission of genetic information                                                                                                                         
¯ mRNA; encodes proteins.
¯ tRNA; binds amino acids and rRNA; and carries them to the mRNA codon to which it binds.
¯ rRNA; manufactures ribosome’s proteins.
¯ Amino Acid; regulation of growth in gene expression.
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