Exploration Of A Tunnel Boring Machine And Tunnel Construction (Other (Not Listed) Sample)
Question: just need litrature review. I've attached my project scope with this. project title: Investigation of design and exploration of a tunnel boring machine and tunnel construction
The design of a tunnel-boring machine
Roads are an essential section for the operation of human beings. They ensure that individuals are in a position to access diverse services all over the nation without experiencing many obstructions. In addition to that, transport supplies are needed to ensure that the supply of goods is done uniformly all over the country. The tunnel-boring machine plays a significant role in providing that the transport supplies become successful through the supply of goods and services. Therefore for a successful project, there is a need for ensuring that proper prediction of the working of the machine is done (Robertson and Robertson, 2012). The process is made a reality through the determination of the design parameters associated with the machine and the functions that contribute to it working efficiently.
The machine contains the cutting head mainly involved in the cutting process. The head is mainly characterized with a cutting disc of approximately 8 meters in diameter. The head may contain about 50 cutting discs that significantly contribute to increasing its efficiency in working. The cutting discs are further designed to be in a position to provide the forces needed for the cutting head (Font-Capó et al, 2011).
The prediction of the performance of a tunnel-boring machine is primarily done basing on the cutting discs that the boring machine does harbor in carrying out its operation. Estimation is an essential section of any machine in ensuring that there is no significant difference in the result and the approximate figures. Most devices do have different ways of carrying out estimation to ensure that most of the variables involved in the whole process are achieved at the end of the day. The tunnel-boring machine does have the linear cutting test that greatly helps in the determination of the various variables established through the operation of the machine (Cho et al, 2013). One of the main parameters determined by the linear cutting test is the appropriate spacing that is needed between any two cuts that may be needed. In addition to that, the operation of the tunnel-boring machine calls for several penetrations that may be needed for its functioning. The linear cutting test does also play a significant role in determining the required penetrations. Furthermore, the device plays a significant role in determining the drive and the cutting speeds that may be needed in carrying out the whole operation process. The cutting forces can also vary depending on the kind of tunnel that is required at the end of the day and the condition of the ground that the boring machine has to encounter.
The load cells, as shown in the figure below, greatly help in the measuring of the cutting forces allowing for the operators to carry out minor alterations of the forces being applied in the cutting process.
Proper penetration of the machine requires an appropriate positioning of the disc at a particular place to exert the penetration. Hence, there is need of making use of the standard force. The force always has to be applied perpendicular to the rolling direction to be in a position to achieve such a function. Apart from that, the force also helps in determining the thrust of the machine if normally applied to the direction of the roll (Acaroglu, 2011). The operation of the machine requires making use of energy to ensure that it functions efficiently. The energy has to be provided in the needed amount to ensure that the whole process becomes a success. Some of the standard requirements that call for the use of energy include the torque and power requirement needed by the machine. Determining such conditions plays a major role in establishing the specific energy required; hence, openly displaying the importance of the rolling force as it greatly helps in the determination of the power and the torque. In designing the balance of the cutting head, the side force is highly considered. The balance promotes the excellent working of the machine.
The working of a tunnel boring Machine
The operation of the boring machine requires that there should be a combination of three major components of the apparatus. The cutter head has to be present in addition to the hydraulic bracing systems that ensure proper working of the machine. Moreover, there will be need to have the excavating conveyor and any other host of the other elements. The cutter head is made with a circular metal face as shown (Maidl et al, 2008).
Several discs are interspersed in the cutter head allowing for the cutter head to make a complete rotation of 360 degrees. The interspersion leads to a considerable increase in the penetration force hence pushing for the boring machine to penetrate excellently. Through the process, the material on the surfaces is loosened with the cutter discs rolling over the surface. The surface might be made of diverse materials ranging from different rocks to the soils. Over all, the rolling of the discs promotes the breaking of such materials into small pieces being referred to as chips. While the process of the chips formation being still in progress, some of them end up falling into the broad bucket lips. The bucket lips are openings that one may quickly notice on the cutter head (Maidl, Thewes and Maidl, 2014).
Shelter hoppers are formed as a result of the combination of the various bucket lips.
The hopper plays a role of receiving the excavated material in the boring process. The material is after that, extended on a vast conveyor belt system. The belt after that extends through the central body located within the tunnel-boring machine.
There is a backup area at the rear of the tunnel-boring machine (Ramoni and Anagnostou, 2010). The backup area experiences gradual enlargement within the tunnel system and having access to the surface. The wheeled loading unit is after that involved in the scooping of the chips ensuring that they are placed in the muck truck. The truck is a dump vehicle and large that has a significant specialization in the traversing of the tunnel system. The systems serve as storage of the excavated material allowing for further processing of the material. The whole process involves the boring machine carrying out its activities in the tunnel. The stability of the machine in the tunnel through the whole process tends to remain still hence, indicating the high levels of stability trait associated with the machine. The hydraulic braces play a significant role in establishing such stability. The mounting is completed radially on the mega drills of the body. The result is that the braces do push outwards on the walls of the tunnel ensuring to increase the stability of the boring machine.
The moving forward of the machine reli...
- Exploration Of A Tunnel Boring Machine And Tunnel ConstructionDescription: The tunnel-boring machine plays a significant role in providing that the transport supplies become successful through the supply of goods and services. Therefore for a successful project, there is a need for ensuring that proper prediction of the working of the machine is done....9 pages/≈2475 words| 20 Sources | Harvard | Engineering | Other (Not Listed) |