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The Impact of Interaction in Virtual Reality Language Learning as Active Learning (Proofreading Sample)

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proofreading and editing: grammar check and APA style paper and any awkward sentence needed to revise.

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The Impact of Interaction in Virtual Reality Language Learning as Active Learning
ABSTRACT
The trend in Virtual Reality (VR) based learning is increasing, since its apparatus are stable, smaller and portable to bring, a lot of VR content is available. In this paper, we assumed that the V.R education module will provide people with active learning because it increases intrinsic motivation with a high interaction. Thus, a quantitative research to measure perceived interactivity and intrinsic motivation as compared to desktop-based learning were conducted (low-immersive environment) and VR HMD-based learning (high-immersive environment). We created two different Korean language modules and tested it to participants who had no prior Korean language learning experience. The primary implication of this research was to perceive interactivity served as a full mediator between medium and intrinsic motivation. This paper emphasizes the importance of interaction in a VR environment that can make language learners more active.
Keywords: Virtual reality Language Learning, Immersion, Perceived Interactivity, Intrinsic Motivation
INTRODUCTION
The availability of immersive virtual environment experiences for education and entertainment purpose has increased in the recent past (Dawley & Dede, 2014). Some people tend to use simulation games (like Minecraft, Second Life or The Sims) to improve their cognitive engagement through the virtual environment for learning a language. Furthermore, people also like to portray themselves as a virtual avatar and find joy in interacting with other avatar or object games. This interaction and communication in the immersive virtual environment can be used for learning a language and to remain highly motivated in the process (Ranalli, 2008). In the light of the above argument, Miller and Hegelheimer (2006) have worked to finding the effectiveness of a popular game, The Sims, on learning the vocabulary of the English as a second language through providing supporting material. They found out that the simulation game was highly effective in language learning and almost all participants enjoyed the game. To find how immersive virtual environment was being used in language learning, it is necessary to investigate what elements can be effective to increase learners’ motivation comparing to a different immersive level.
These simulation games are so practical and highly interactive that its potential for use in language learning is increasing (Coleman, 2002; Crookall, 2002; Purushotma, 2005). This is possible because the computer can generate an authentic environment to help students’ to better understand visualization. Van Berkum and De Jong (1991) compared between traditional teaching pedagogy (e.g., textbooks and lectures) and computer-based learning (e.g., simulation). They found that computer-based learning had supplementary advantages over the traditional teaching methods because the students felt less stressed to practice it in authentic content and solve the problem in the virtual environment. Other scholars suggested that 3D technology was more effective than 2D in learning process due to the reason that 3D provides accurate simulated and authentic learning environment (Vogel et al. 2006). Recently, many students are using virtual environment simulation games to learn a language without a fear to exchange the languages. Thus, interactive simulation games provided motivation as compared to teacher controlled learning content (Vogel et al. 2006).
These authentic content increases the autonomy of active learning and reduces virtual environment risks, (Wolff 1994) emphasis on learning a second language and claims that the autonomous language user who is encouraged to interact in the target language will improve language learning because the user has his own responsibility for their own learning process. They can keep practising or interacting with the objects without fear or lack of immediacy.
Although the desktop-based learning seems to have many advantages, nevertheless, the monitor is not a complete tool to boost immersive level. In this learning setting, students do not often feel connected with their instructors (Vonderwell, 2003). In the article, improving online learning, (Song, Singleton, Hill, and Koh 2004) emphasized that it is essential to connect with learners and share emotions. The Lack of immersion will disturb the concentration of the study. It may affect student’s motivation and learning outcomes. To resolve these problems, development in VR has been established to increase the levels of immersion of three-dimensional virtual environment with the application of supporting devices such as the Head-Mounted Display (HMD) and headphones (Boulos, Hetherington, & Wheeler, 2007).
In Virtual reality (VR), a sense of presence can generate high-immersive environment (Solak & Erdem, 2015). Presence defines as “being there” (Biocca & Delaney, 1995). On an immersive training systems article, (Psotka, 1995) states that “What distinguishes VR from all preceding technology is the sense of immediacy and control created by immersion”. A comparison report on the effects of 2D and 3D animation to keeping interest and motivation of students found that 3D full immersive virtual reality learning environment (VRLE) keeps students motivated and they do not easily lose interest in the process of learning (Limniou, Roberts, and Papadopoulos 2008).
Rose and Billinghurst (1995) emphasized that VR is constructive in nature: “The experience in which an idea is embedded is critical to the individual’s understanding of and ability to use that idea” (Duffy & Jonassen, 2013; Wolff, 1994). Virtual reality provides the opportunity for learning and developing an idea in an environment similar to a real one. In addition, the advantages of virtual reality, some of them are: keeps students motivated, plays an active role in the learning process, provides a learning autonomy and high immersion (Bricken & Byrne, 1993; Loftin, Engleberg, & Benedetti, 1993; Regian, Shebilske, & Monk, 1992) and thus, VR may be an efficient language learning tool.
Immersive VR in language learning
Immersion is a state in which one gets a perception of being surrounded by, incorporated into and having interaction with a virtual environment that provides a stream of stimulus and experience simultaneously. It depends on how much one feels isolated from its physical environment and have a natural interaction with the virtual environment (Witmer & Singer, 1998). More specifically, Schwienhorst (2002) divided VR into two immersion levels (low and high). Low-immersive VR utilizes the desktop to view the virtual environment and high-immersive VR uses a Head Mounted Display (HMD) which can generate a fully immersive environment. Depending on these levels, the effects of perceived interactivity or motivation can be different. For instance, Merchant (2012) conducted a comparison research in immersive chemistry class on Virtual Reality-based learning and traditional methods of coaching. The outcome showed that students who used the Second Life environment perceived themselves as being in the environment. This is because 3D virtual reality features are capable of providing a higher immersion level (Hall et al. 2004; Winn, Windschitl, Fruland, & Lee, 2002). Similarly, Steuer (1992) stated that communication devices (VR) differ in terms of induction of presence. The sense of presence can be relevant to determine different immersion levels, whether low or high immersive environment (Azuma et al., 2001; Dede, 2009; Hedley, Billinghurst, Postner, May, & Kato, 2002).
Interaction as the core of active learning
Modern technologies, for instance, virtual reality (V.R) has potential effects on persuasion and learning (Skalski & Tamborini, 2007). They argue that the key element that induces these characteristics is the interactive feature of technologies. The technologies have a potential of generating a feeling of presence with vividness and interactivity.
Interactivity is defined as the extent to which use of the medium could control the content of the virtual environment. This control allows a learner to obtain intellectual information and results from course content. Thus, virtual reality devices provide learners with quicker and realistic means of interaction with learning content (Huang, Rauch, & Liaw, 2010). In a similar research, (Pantelidis 1993) it suggests that there are several reasons for adaptation of immersive V.R in the classrooms. Likewise, the simulation feature of V.R makes it an outstanding medium for learning and practising skills that could not be mastered in a physical environment. For example, in the medical field, one can easily practice complex surgeries in a virtual environment before applying on a physical patient. Similarly, Mr. Vetro™ is a popular simulation application consisting of medical scenarios to be practiced on before applying to patients. In this way, it condenses the failure probability risk of a procedure.
Text-based interaction
V.R provides behavioural engagement, which includes one-on-one talking and texting (Skalski & Tamborini, 2007). It allows interaction between the teacher and learners by visual lectures and text chat tools (Huang et al., 2010). Also, this text-based interaction is frequently used in a simulation game, and it provides several benefits. For example, Wehner, Gump, and Downey (2011) have compared text message bubble interaction in Second life: one group with text chatting online in Second Life, and another group without using Second Life. The results showed the group which used Second life text bubble box had less anxiety than non-Second life content users.
Social Agent Interaction
The social presence is defined as a sense of be...
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