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6 pages/≈1650 words
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APA
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Biological & Biomedical Sciences
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Research Paper
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English (U.S.)
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Impacts of Pollution on Marine Life (Research Paper Sample)

Instructions:

Anthropogenic underwater noise is now recognized as a worldwide menace, and recent
studies have indicated a broad range of adverse effects in various taxa. Underwater noise from
shipping is increasingly recognized as a significant and pervasive pollutant to impact marine
ecosystems on a global scale. Different noise sources such as seismic surveys have widespread
regional effects and a much more significant local impact than shipping. Pile driving for offshore
construction, military activity, anti-predator devices, and pleasure crafts (with depth-and fish-
finders) may also be substantial local or regional underwater noise sources. Marine renewable
energy devices may produce lower noise levels than many other anthropogenic sources but can
cause long-term exposure to sessile marine organisms.
Regarding humanmade ocean noise as a pollutant is a recent development. Underwater
noise was first posited as a potential threat to marine fauna in long-range communication among
baleen whales. Before that, underwater noise research was focused on military applications:
hydrophones have been used to listen for sounds produced by submarines since World war I.
Radiated noise from ships was identified as a nuisance is signal processing of active sonar

source..
Content:


Impacts of Pollution on Marine Life
Name
Institutional affiliation
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Instructor
Date
Impacts of Pollution on Marine Life
Introduction
Anthropogenic underwater noise is now recognized as a worldwide menace, and recent studies have indicated a broad range of adverse effects in various taxa. Underwater noise from shipping is increasingly recognized as a significant and pervasive pollutant to impact marine ecosystems on a global scale. Different noise sources such as seismic surveys have widespread regional effects and a much more significant local impact than shipping. Pile driving for offshore construction, military activity, anti-predator devices, and pleasure crafts (with depth-and fish-finders) may also be substantial local or regional underwater noise sources. Marine renewable energy devices may produce lower noise levels than many other anthropogenic sources but can cause long-term exposure to sessile marine organisms.
Regarding humanmade ocean noise as a pollutant is a recent development. Underwater noise was first posited as a potential threat to marine fauna in long-range communication among baleen whales. Before that, underwater noise research was focused on military applications: hydrophones have been used to listen for sounds produced by submarines since World war I. Radiated noise from ships was identified as a nuisance is signal processing of active sonar in World war II.
Research Question
How does pollution affect marine life?
Literature Review
Gall & Thompson (2015) lists marine debris among the significant perceived threats to biodiversity and is cause for particular concern due to its abundance, durability, and persistence in the marine environment. An in-depth literature search reviewed the current state of knowledge on marine debris' effects on aquatic organisms. In this regard, three hundred forty original publications reported encounters between organisms and marine debris and 693 species. Plastic waste accounted for 92% of encounters between debris and individuals. Numerous direct and indirect consequences were recorded, with potential for sublethal effects of ingestion, an area of considerable uncertainty and concern. Comparison to the IUCN Red list highlighted that at least 17% of species affected by entanglement and ingestion were listed as threatened or near-threatened. Hence, marine debris combined with other anthropogenic stressors may affect populations, trophic interactions, and assemblances.
Williams et al. (2015). Argues that anthropogenic underwater noise is now recognized as a worldwide problem and that recent studies have shown a broad range of adverse effects in a variety of taxa. Underwater noise from shipping liners is increasingly recognized as a significant and pervasive pollutant with the potential to impact marine ecosystems on a global scale. We reviewed six regional case studies as examples of recent research and management activities relating to ocean noise in various taxonomic groups, locations, and approaches. However, as no six projects could ever cover all taxa, sites, and noise sources, a brief bibliometric analysis places these case studies into the broader historical and topical context of the peer-reviewed ocean noise literature. The case studies highlighted the emerging knowledge of impacts, including how non-injurious effects can still accumulate at the population level, and detailed approaches to guide ocean noise management. They build a compelling case that several anthropogenic noise types can affect a variety of marine taxa.
Riley & Hollich (2018) bibliometric analyses revealed an increasing diversity of ocean noise topics covered and journal outlets since the 1940s. It could be seen in terms of both the expansion of the literature from more physical interests to ecological impacts of noise, management and policy, and consideration of a widening range of taxa. However, suppose our scientific knowledge base is ever to get ahead of the curve of rapid industrialization of the ocean. In that case, we will have to identify naïve populations and relatively pristine seas and construct mechanistic models to predict impacts before they occur and guide effective mitigation for the worst vulnerable people.
Wilcox et al. (2016), using expert elicitation to estimate the effect of plastic pollution on marine wildlife, unanimously agree that marine litter is a growing environmental concern. With the rapid increase in global plastics production and the resulting large volume of waste that enters the marine environment, determining the consequences of this debris on marine fauna and ocean health has now become a critical environmental priority, particularly for the threatened and endangered species. However, there are limited data about the impacts of debris on marine species from which to conclude the population consequences of anthropogenic debris. For this gap to be addressed address, information was elicited from experts on the ecological threat (both severity and specificity) of entanglement, ingestion, and chemical contamination for three major marine taxa: seabirds, sea turtles, and marine mammals.
Rangel-Buitrago et al. (2017) assessment focused on the most common types of litter found along the world's coastlines, based on data gathered during three decades of international coastal clean-up efforts. Fishing relates to gear, balloons, and plastic bags that were estimated to pose the most significant entanglement risk to marine fauna. In contrast, experts identified a broader suite of items of concern for ingestion, with plastic bags and plastic utensils ranked as the most significant threats. Entanglement and ingestion affected a similar taxa range, although entanglement was rated as slightly worse because it is more likely to be lethal. Contamination was scored the lowest in terms of impact, affecting a smaller portion of the taxa and being rated as being having solely non-lethal results. This work points towards several opportunities for policy-based and consumer-driven plastic use changes that could have demonstrable effects for a range of ecologically essential taxa that serve as indicators of marine ecosystem health.
Vikas & Dwarakish (2015) noted that various substances' harmful effects on the marine environment were reviewed by collecting and studying the relevant literature materials. Multiple sources for the marine environment's pollution were identified, and the causes for the same are understood. Many of the pollutants that are let into the sea are directly or indirectly by human activities. Some of these substances are biodegradable, while some are not. Several laws and policies have been taken to prevent marine pollution at the national and international levels. Simulation of oil spills has been done by developing models in some parts of the world. The pollution off the shore is increasing at an alarming rate, and addressing this problem of the definition of coastal pollution, causes of coastal pollution, its impacts, and preventive measures are discussed.
Bakir et al. (2016) these authors hypothesized that, if ingested, plastic debris could act as a vector for the transfer of chemical contaminants from seawater to organisms. Yet, modeling suggests that, in the natural environment, the chemical transfer would be negligible compared to other routes of uptake. However, to date, the models have not considered the role of gut surfactants or the influence of pH or temperature on desorption. In contrast, experimental work has shown that these factors can enhance the desorption of sorbed contaminants several-fold. Here, we modeled the transfer of sorbed organic pollutants dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), phenanthrene (Phe) bis-2-Ethylhexyl. Phthalate (DEHP) was sourced from microscopic particles of polyvinylchloride (PVC) and polyethylene (PE) to a benthic invertebrate. A fish and a seabird using a one-compartment model OMEGA (Optimal Modelling for EcotoxicoloGical Applications) were from different conditions of pH, temperature, and gut surfactants. Environmental concentrations of contaminants at the bottom and the top of published ranges were considered. It was combined with the ingestion of either 1 or 5% by weight of plastic. There may be scenarios in which plastics' presence makes a more vital contribution. Our modeling study suggests that the ingestion of microplastic does not provide a quantitatively additional pathway for the transfer of absorbed chemicals from seawater to biota via the gut.
Clark et al. (2016) developed a frontier in ecology and environment – Marine microplastic debris, a targeted plan for understanding and quantifying marine life interactions. The authors argue that microscopic plastic debris is a marine pollutant that threatens aquatic biota and ecosystems, which have been detected throughout the world's oceans. However, the importance of different processes that control the spatial distribution and long-term fate of microplastics in the marine environment remains unknown. Outcomes from laboratory and field studies indicate that interactions between microplastic debris and marine organisms may play an important role in redistributing plastic in oceans. They have provided an overview of various mechanisms through which marine life and microplastics can interact. By considering ph

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