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Literature & Language
Human experimentation in Human Experimentation In Medicine As Subjects In Medical Researchedicine (Research Paper Sample)
instructions: write a research paper on human experimentation in medicine.
the sample is about the use of human as subjects in medical research.
Human Experimentation in Medicine Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Human Experimentation in Medicine The medical field has consistently been marked by the increasing knowledge of different medical experiments. One of the major experiments which have been arguably of most interest in medicine is human experimentation. However, medicine should never treat human as subjects to its research or by any means to enhance its knowledge. Nevertheless, there are constant human experiments which happen daily by willing and collaborating people to help in advancing medical knowledge through this planned experiments. One of the critical things to do is to ensure that however much these experiments occur, no exploitation should happen. Human experiments are aimed at achieving most complex researches, so as to provide maximum data with minimum risk factors while ensuring that subjects are fully informed (Tomossy & Weisstub, 2017). This paper gives various insights into the human experimentation in medicine perceptions, by giving the history, ethics, and impacts of the experiment on human subjects. History of Human Experimentation Human experimentation has a long history. However, in the 1950's there was an increased number of experiments which brought much attention to this subject. During this early decades, there were differences in medical experiments but they were harder to distinguish since they were contemporary. There are two main terms which would possibly explain the ancient human experimentation; standard medical practice and organized medical research. For instance, the controlled, randomized, and double-blind experiments on drugs which have been beneficial to medical practices were designed and introduced in the 1950’s. The use of human as subjects during experiments was specifically attributed to by the aftermath of the cold war of the 1950's. The effects were so severe that most people would prefer to offer themselves as subjects for medical experiments. It seemed the best solution at the time and helped in the discovery of the first medicine to help in pandemics which were rapidly spreading at the time. There were several gaps which were existing in the medical field. Due to the medical challenges which were present at the time, human subjects seemed a better solution. At the time, using animals in experiments was not common and only a few scientists would successfully carry t research with animals. In addition, human subjects were readily available as medical materials and was a convenient solution in the medical field. In the last recent decades, there has been changing protocols in the medical field. Various biomedical interventions have been founded based on the use of human experiments. However, the main issue which may seem to hinder the human experimentation is ethics. Today, there are various ethical values which must be considered before conducting such experiments. There are especially human experiments which are highly tied to ethical values. They include; sterilization, induced abortion, and artificial insemination. Sterilization is always a procedure that is used to block or close the fallopian tube for women to avoid pregnancy. Equally, men undergo vasectomy option which blocks the duct that carries sperms and is regarded as more effective than women options. Similarly, there is artificial insemination which is used as a fertility treatment option for delivering sperms into the uterus of women to induce pregnancy. The main approaches to AI are intracervical insemination and intrauterine insemination. How Human Experimentation Works Medicine field is mainly based on human experimentation. Researchers have done more significant works in using human experiments as test subjects through biochemical and vitro experiments. It involves understanding mechanisms of diseases to an individual’s DNA molecules. Nevertheless, with a lack of human testing, they would not know if the end results intended for making patients better. If they continue carrying out these human experiments, they will realize that these experiments have achieved developments in the medical field (Tomossy & Weisstub, 2017). It is through human experimentation in which ethics of science is intended to clash against mechanisms of science. Moreover, one of the most important lessons which can be learnt from human experimentation is because clinical trials involve breathing and living and scientifically, it involves trial strategies. There are a lot of human subjects which have been used in these human experiments. They are always confined for some time while experiments are taking place. For example, a research that is bound to happen within a month will involve confining the human subjects for more than a month since the will need to be prepared for the experiment. It involves extracting components of the human body like organs, studying them and coming up with satisfying solutions to any problems that might affect that given component (Tomossy & Weisstub, 2017). Similarly, there is a keen comparison of these elements from one individual to another. Specimen from person A could be matched to specimen from person B. In this way, it is easy to come up with conclusions which could help determine the cause of a problem in person and find the right remedy through medication. As far as more scientists are concerned, human experimentation seems to be one of the most significant things to ever happen to the medical field (Weitz, 2009). It led to the identification of unsolved diseases affecting human beings which people were afraid to solve during earlier decades. In fact, robots are seemingly the products of human experimentation in attempts to come up with an object which could have similar features as the human. Ethics Involved in Human Experimentation While focusing on the history of clinical and medical trials, there is no doubt that there are different attitudes in which scientists and physicians have had towards the use of human as subjects. It was during the late 1960’s that attitudes regarding human experiments began to change. The first humans to be used as experiments were mostly prisoners. This is because they were considered a vulnerable population with which getting informed consent as well as getting their special attention was easy since they were ready to manipulate. For instance, inmates would prefer to be subjects on handouts given by medical researchers. Other subjects used were mentally retarded children or people. Scientifically, their contribution to research would be great. However, considering ethical values these medical researches they are probably going against the rights of these human subjects (Skloot, 2017). Perhaps the use of mentally retarded children for these experiments was not considered morally right during earlier decades. This is because they were focusing on finding other medical solutions towards other diseases instead of focusing on the subjects themselves (Skloot, 2017). For instance, they were mentally retarded children used in experiments of other diseases instead of helping them become normal. It implies that they were not helping solve the problems that face these children but instead, they were creating more problems for these individuals since experiments could fail if not performed correctly. In either case, it was not right to use human as subjects. Having consent or proceeding to carry out an experiment in all ways could be right scientifically. However, the effects are worse and in the end, it results in more serious problems. Impacts of Human Experimentation Uncertainty gives more problems when its meaning is made clear in the context of use, but in science, there should never be uncertainties. Understanding experiments in science involve considering two viewpoints. One that insists that medical experiments cannot be justified not until the human subjects are able to gain from the experiment as they would lose. The other perception is looking at the possibility that these human subjects can lose more than the cold gain through the experiment (Tomossy & Weisstub, 2017). Therefore, the experiment should thus be used reasonably in a way that stands a chance to offer benefits to the medical field by advancing knowledge to help in these scientific researches. In addition, the argument that human experimentation is beneficial or harmful brings different opinions on what mechanisms should be used while carrying out these experiments. Thus it makes the impact of the human experimentation to be two-sided. The significance of Human Experimentation Health and Illness are among the major causes which led to human experimentation. Scientists were trying to come up with solutions which were affecting human beings like diseases. Therefore, to cure human of such illnesses, using human as the subjects were efficient. Besides, humans were readily available and could be summoned every time for these experiments. In science, using a specimen from the victim to study it is found to be the most effective way to understand such a subject. Therefore, in order to understand humans, it was necessary to use samples and specimens from humans themselves. Therefore, while using humans as experimental materials, it led to the invention of more drugs to cure diseases (Tomossy & Weisstub, 2017). The medicinal field is said to have always gained more knowledge every time a human is used in experiments. Similarly, using humans led to the invention of reproduction options for humans. Before the invention of artificial insemination, some women could not give birth. Besides, using human experimentation led to control of hereditary diseases which were more deadly when passed down to generations (Tomossy & Weisstub, 2017). Doctors thus could advise a couple against having to marry since their children would suffer from a particular type of disease. In addition, human...
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