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IT & Computer Science
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A Comparative Analysis of the National Cybersecurity in Saudi Arabia (Research Paper Sample)

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The research paper was on COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE NATIONAL CYBERSECURITY IN SAUDI ARABIA.
The study aimed at critically contrasting and analyzing cybersecurity using appropriate models and hypotheses, thus identifying the cybersecurity gap in cyberspacesq. critical research was surveyed in this study, thereby analyzing the comprehension of the cybersecurity strategy of Saudi Arabia.
The research method used was critical review and analyzing existing cybersecurity, cybercrime, and cybersecurity strategies. Equally, the study will compare and critically contrast Saudi Arabia’s cybersecurity strategies and policies with; Singapore, Canada, Japan, USA, Malaysia, India, Kuwait, Hong Kong, Bahrain, Egypt, China, Russia, United Kingdom, Korea, and France. Consequently, the comparison will help understand the strong point and weaknesses of cybersecurity policies and strategies of Saudi Arabia.

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A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE NATIONAL CYBERSECURITY IN SAUDI ARABIA
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Abstract: Technological advancement in the modern world has amplified security concerns, thus emerging cybersecurity to counter the emerging security threats in the contemporary world. Each country stipulates its National Cyber Security Strategy (NCSS) to counter the threats. NCSS depicts the strength of a given country’s cybersecurity strength concerning the objectives, aims, vision, and cybersecurity mission of a country in question. Previously, many researchers have conducted studies on NCSS by contrasting the National Cyber Security Strategy between different nations primarily for intercontinental teamwork and coordination of cybersecurity challenges globally. Purposefully, one of the main objectives is to evaluate and assess policy frameworks in various countries to combat the prevailing cyber threats. As a result, from the comparison of many policy frameworks on NCSS of many countries, it was discovered that more effort should put into National Cyber Security of South Arabia. Therefore, to update South Arabia’s NCSS to be like other cyber advanced countries. This paper will have to compare the cybersecurity strategy of Saudi Arabia with the NCSS of other fifteen countries such as Singapore, Canada, Japan, USA, Malaysia, India, Kuwait, Hong Kong, Bahrain, Egypt, China, Russia, United Kingdom, Korea, and France.
Keywords: Cybersecurity Strategy, Comparative Study, Cybersecurity, cybersecurity policy, communication, cyber-attack, Saudi Arabia.
1 INTRODUCTION
Cyberspace has dramatically expanded due to technological advancement. Nowadays, cyberspace is part of daily life experiences and socio-economical activities. Many people have embraced technology to the extent that they store their data and personal information in cyber space’s databanks, thus posing new security perils [1]. As a result, massive data, the ‘internet of things (IoT), and online storage are prone to cyberattacks, thereby jeopardizing people’s data, company’s data, and information if cyber attackers outdo the security protocols of cyberspace. Cyber-attacks are always creative and innovative in modifying their attacks. They have never stooped, and they will never stop attacking cyberspace. Subsequently, every nation should ensure reliable, resilient, and stable information communication technology (ICT) to counter the emerging cyber-attacks [1]. A country with weak technological infrastructure is highly prone to cyber-attacks, and as a result, every country should advance its ICT sectors to combat the cyber-attacks. Saudi Arabia somehow enhanced its Information Communication Technology (ICT) sector to counter the cyber-attacks in the country.
However, residents and business people continued to experience challenges as they do their day to activities due to cyber threats. Many organizations’ in Saudi Arabia reported information and monetary loss cases linked to cyber threats [2]. The Saudi Arabian Kingdom is prominently known for embracing technology as early as 1997. It transformed into an IT-based country just with ten years only. Strategically, in 2007 the Saudi government enforced the use of a computer as a pressing necessity at the individual level, health sectors, education sector, business institutions, and public sector levels. As a result, the government unknowingly exposed a large number of its population to emerging cyber-attacks.
The regulatory body of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and the Communication and Information Technology Commission (CITC) in Saudi Arabia conducted a survey annually, thus capturing alteration in IT penetration levels [2]. It was evident that a large number of people penetrated computer use in individual and commercial undertakings elevated from 43% to 51% in 2007 and 2009, respectfully [3]. Saudi Arabia fully invested in ITES, the IT-enabled facilities, and IT groundwork. The Saudi government fully resorted to this strategy to improve the United Nation’s ECDI, the E-government Development index, and the EPI or the E-participation index in the country. Despite all this good strategy, the Saudi government did not lay down appropriate, resilient, desirable, and practical measures to counter the cyber-attack [3].
Cyberwarfare has emerged as a modern security encounter. Saudi Arabia is a chief target of cyber-attack due to its digital and economic uprising, advancement in technology, and prosperity in the oil and gas industry in the country [4]. As a result, it will discourage a potential investor from investing in an insecure nation. Therefore, the reliable cybersecurity strategy plays an essential role in economic, social, national growth procedures by countering cyber threats. Consequently, it provides monetary security, enhancing nationwide resilience, legalized mandate, partisan imperativeness, shielding government secrets, enhancing international relations, thus promoting a country’s public image [3]. Therefore, it is high time for Saudi Arabia to update its strategy to combat national and internal cyber threats in the country effectively. Therefore, this study will evaluate the existing NCSS of Saudi Arabia by relating its cybersecurity strategy with other countries’ of diverse technological ranks such as Singapore, Canada, Japan, USA, Malaysia, India, Kuwait, India, Hong Kong, Egypt, Bahrain, China, Russia, United Kingdom, Korea, and France. The comparison will find some insights on how to improve Saud Arabia’s cybersecurity Strategy.
2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The 21st century is marked as a technological era. Almost everything nowadays being operated by technology. Technology has advanced rapidly globally regardless of the continent. Significantly, technology has improved the living standards of people and the quality of life in modern society. Correspondingly, Saudi Arabia is on the right track by adopting a long-term vision by running everything technologically [4]. Saudi’s economy is digitalized, thus boosting the country’s productivity. Equally, the state provides communication and information technology services to all sectors in the nation, thus becoming a key source of income by building a solid information technology industry. Unfortunately, the more advance a country is technological, the more and complex cyber threats it faces [4].
Furthermore, cybercrimes are not restricted in one country as federal law, and they can camouflage in a country’s cyberspace if its cybersecurity is weak and unable to confront it. Therefore, a technological country such as Saudi Arabia exposes its citizen to cyber threats since many of its sectors are technology-based, thus becoming more prone to cyber-attacks. Cyber-attackers malevolently deactivate computers, take data, and use the penetrated computer as a blast-off for their subsequent assault [4]. Cybercriminals tend to use various methods to launch cyber-attacks. They include denial of service, phishing, malware, ransomware, and other malicious attacks.
Conversely, in the first three months of 2021, Saudi Arabia recorded over seven million cyber-attacks [4]. The new Kaspersky report postulates that cyber-attack rose by 104% from 983512 to 2000000 in February and March, respectfully. Kaspersky’s statistics matched the government announcement on cyber-attack and validating the new Kaspersky’s report. The report claimed that most cyber-attacks were against the conventions used by workers while getting into their organizations remotely in their digital devices. Therefore, the information raises essentials for cybersecurity mindfulness. Equally, the country witnessed approximately 22.6 million cyber-attacks by cybercriminals on ‘remote desktop protocols’ (RDPs), the commonly known way of getting into servers or windows while hiding the computer IP addresses. Also, there has been a loss of malicious attempts of Cybersecurity in Saudi Arabia. At the G20 summit hosted in 2020, the ‘Saudi Data and artificial Intelligence Authority (SDAIA)’ stated that it terminated approximately 2,500,000 attacks under-connected gateways in the conference. Therefore, assessing the current Cybersecurity of Saudi Arabia is necessary to identify the loopholes and how to improve its security strategies [4]. Consequently, the paper will be looking at how countries have taken profound measures such as creating awareness on cybersecurity to make their NCSS better as well as how Saudi Arabia’s Strategy can be better compared with other countries with weak and robust security strategies, hence evaluating Saudi Arabia’s system logically [40].
3 LITERATURE REVIEW
Cybersecurity must be in line with digital transformation. Many countries are trying their ultimate best to review security strategies to be ready for the impending cyber-attacks, as discussed below.
3.1 Cyber Security Policy
All the stakeholders in a country’s economy, such as businesses, companies, organizations, and the country at large, are governed and ruled by government policies that call everyone to adhere to a country’s cybersecurity. Whether the policies are favorable or not, policies serve as a guideline to be followed, thus taking cover upon the emerging cyber-attacks [39]. Prudent policymakers develop government policies to combat cybercrimes effectively [10]. The cybersecurity policy (NCSS) of Saudi Arabia stipulates suitable measures and regulations that assure the nation’s maximum security in the middle of cyberspace full of cybercriminals. As a result, it will safeguard the gover...

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